Wednesday, December 25, 2019

The Theory Behind Absolute Advantage - 1141 Words

Over many years there has been many conceptual theories devised to help explain the reasons why there is trade within the world accompanied by the possibilities that gains could or could not be made. This piece of work will examine four main theories put forward by Adam Smith (Absolute advantage, 1776) which was then expanded on by David Ricardo with his theory of the Ricardian Model (Comparative advantage, 1817). Also including the Heckscher-Ohlin model (relative factor abundance, 1919, 1933) and the ideas of New Trade Theory (Economies of Scale and Imperfect Competition). These ideas will be evaluated and synthesised to see if these explanations truly explain the reasons of trade theory. Absolute advantage was an idea suggest by Adam Smith in 1817. The theory behind absolute advantage suggests that if a country is highly skilled and efficient in producing a certain good with the fewer resources, then it is believed that a specific country has an absolute advantage in the production of that good (SlomanGarratt, 2013). However Absolute advantage can only occur if the country using its resources for a specific good/service does so efficiently otherwise no gains are made from trading. Although it can be argued that the idea of Absolute advantage does not particularly make much sense in explaining trade patterns. As said in Feenstra’s and Taylors book, Absolute advantage does not particularly help to explain the case of why the US imports snowboards from places like ChinaShow MoreRelatedDifference Between Absolute and Comparative Advatage621 Words   |  3 PagesThe theory of comparative advantage is perhaps one of the most important concepts in international trad e theory. A country has an absolute advantage in the production of a good relative to another country if it can produce the good at lower cost or with higher productivity. Absolute advantage compares industry productivities across countries. In the case of Zambia, for instance, the country has an absolute advantage over many countries in the production of copper. This occurs because of the existenceRead MoreThe Value Of The Model Depends On Their Truth Or Falsity1186 Words   |  5 Pagesservices differs and as result each country has its own  «comparative advantage » for certain goods or services. Krugman and Obstfeld stated that  «a country has a comparative advantage in producing a good if the opportunity cost of producing that good in terms of other goods is lower in that county than in it is in other countries ». There is a possibility of even more beneficial trade among countries if each country use its comparative advantage to specialize in production of the specific good as an economicRead MoreThe Ethics Principle Around The Idea Of Pleasure By John Mill And Jeremy Bentham766 Words   |  4 PagesThe deontological theory claim that certain actions are naturally right or wrong, good or bad, and without regard for its consequences. The theory was derived from philosopher Immanuel Kant in 18th century. The theory states that social workers should always obey the law regardless of the consequences that would follow. It states that the law is the law. Deontologist state that rules, rights, and the laws are commonly guarded and sacred. The theory states that the end does not automatically justifyRead MoreThomas Hobbes And John Locke s Theory Of Social Contract Theory1449 Words   |  6 PagesIn this essay, I argue contemporary social contract theory extends itself beyond politics and into philosophy, religion, and literature. I begin by defining social contract theory and explaining the different perspectives of English philosophers, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. From there, I will introduce Dostoyevsky’s work, Grand Inquisitor, and conduct an analysis of the relationships between the Grand Inquisitor and his subjects as well as Jesus and his followers. Using textual evidence and uncontroversialRead MoreEconomic Interdependence Between Countries And The Global Economy1435 Words   |  6 Pagespolitical and social progress as well. This theory has its roots in the works of two 18th century economist, Adam Smith and David Ricardo, both advocates of free trade. The concept of the â€Å"invisible hand of the market† is a central piece of the argument that markets should be left alone and that without government intervention markets tend to regulate themselves to accommodate the changing times. Next to this notion, Ricardo’s law of â€Å"Comparative Advantage† argues that a country should specialise inRead MoreIn This Essay, I Will Examine Social Contract Theory And1619 Words   |  7 PagesIn this essay, I will examine social contract theory and explain the perspectives of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. From there, I will explore Dostoyevsky’s poem, Grand Inquisitor, and conduct an analysis of the relationships between the Grand Inquisitor and his subjects as well as Jesus and his followers. After, I will draw parallels associating The Grand Inquisitor’s relationship to his subjects with Thomas Hobbes’ perspective on social contract theory. Similarly, I will analogize Jesus’ relationshipRead MoreThe Great Ideas Of Thomas Hobbes Leviathan, And Adam Smith s The Wealth Of Nations1083 Words   |  5 PagesWealth of Nations, the most important ideas deal with human nature and social order. In this paper, I will argue Hobbes’ lack of optimism, and Smith’s lack of pessimism in their theories of human nature, and will also discuss how our ide a of social order changes once these aspects are taken into consideration. Hobbes’ theory of human nature begins with him stating that all men are created equal. With all men being created equal, this means that everyone is equally capable of killing each other, becauseRead MoreJohn Rawls s Theory Of Justice1558 Words   |  7 Pagesthe twentieth century. He is well known for his published work called the Theory of Justice. In this book, he tried to explain the political structures that are designed by society for its citizens. He considered his theory as a guide to preserving social justice and individual liberty. In this essay, I will explain Rawls philosophy on the principles of justice, the veil of ignorance and provide my criticisms to his theories. A society should be well organized and beneficial for its citizens becauseRead MoreThomas Hobbes And John Locke Essay1441 Words   |  6 Pagesaddition, the two represented an increasingly modernized European population that despised absolute kingship. Both Hobbes and Locke proposed a conception of external power to solve the issues arising from the state of nature?s inconveniences. Also necessary is a third power to calm insecurity in case there was a war. However, the creation of government and the transition out of natural state, including the logic behind this idea, exposes sharp contrasts between the two philosophers. After researching forRead MoreCan Brazil Become a Global Competitor in It Technology914 Words   |  4 Pagesactions regarding the international information technology sector using theories presented in International Business: The Challenge of Global Competition and provide recommendations to the Brazilian government and its outsourcing industry in order to im prove their prospects for success in building a strong international competitive position in the information technology outsourcing business. Although Brazil is currently lagging behind India in IT outsourcing it is the 5th largest country and 11th most

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Marketing Mix - 1440 Words

Marketing mix is a mix of options and variables that a marketer has to design his proposition. The four Ps, as they are known, of the marketing mix are Product, Price, Place and Promotion. Marketers mix these ingredients and variables in different proportions for their products in order to meet their requirements within their given constraints and boundaries. Marketing mix covers the four major elements and variables that a marketer has and can manipulate in order to design his offering according to its customers and target market. The marketing mix model of marketing was proposed by Neil Bordon in 1965. Marketing mix is designed separately for each product offering and different market segments for a company. Different proportions are†¦show more content†¦By using this type of marketing strategy organizations are given the opportunity to market a very successful product, so it would be true to say that the marketing mix and its manipulation are vital for the success of a business. However, their good or service may only be successful if the organization provides products that satisfy consumers needs and wants through a co-coordinated set of activities that also allow the organization to achieve its goals. Customer satisfaction should be the major aim of the marketing concept. But the process does not end here because the organ ization should continue to alter, adapt and develop products to keep pace with customers changing desires and preferences. Organizations should be aware of the importance of customers and release that marketing activities begin and end with the customer. In attempting to satisfy customers, businesses must consider not only the short and medium term needs but also the long term desires as it is vital to the long term success of the business and probably the best way to do this would be to link the different departments of the company together (i.e Production, Finance, Accounting, Personnel etcÂ…) A company adopting this particular marketing strategy must not only satisfy its consumers preferences but it also must achieve the objectives that it hoped to achieve by using this strategy. The best wayShow MoreRelatedHolden Marketing Mix1768 Words   |  8 PagesAssessment 2 Marketing mix Review and Recommendations Report My brand is V6 Holden Commodore Short review about Holden in Australia;- The history of Holden dates back to 1856 when it started as a saddler business in South Australia. Today Holden is one of only seven fully-integrated global General Motors operations that designs, builds and sells vehicles for Australia and the world. Holden has its headquarters in Port Melbourne, with an engine manufacturing plant on-site and vehicle manufacturingRead MoreMarketing Mix1491 Words   |  6 PagesMarketing Mix MKT 421 Marketing Introduction Companies today try their best to continue to keep up with the changes of services, products and technology. Companies rely on their abilities in marketing to keep consumers interested in their products and services. The success of a company may rely on the company’s marketing performance. Marketing planning starts by thinking of the targeted audience needs, strategies, and the development of the products and or service needed. DevelopingRead MoreThe Marketing Mix Hard Rock Cafe1259 Words   |  6 PagesThe Marketing Mix Place The marketing mix consists in total of 4 elements (Product,Price, Place, Promotion) which are often referred to as ‘the four Ps’. One of those four Ps is â€Å"Place†: Place represents the location where a product can be purchased. It is often referred to as the distribution channel through which goods and/or services are moved from the manufacturer/service provider to the user or consumer. It can include any physical store as well as virtual stores on the Internet. In ourRead MoreMarketing Mix For The Evergreen Aquatic Centre2118 Words   |  9 Pages Assessment Task 2: Project-Determine the marketing mix Marketing Mix The marketing mix for the Evergreen Aquatic Centre will engage the four elements of marketing as follows: Product or Facility Recipients of the facility Evergreen Forest is a small community encompassing just under 1010 square miles. The estimated current population is 11010. Evergreen Aquatic Centre offers internationally recognised state of the art aquatic facilities to suit every person’s demands. Going from proficient practiceRead MoreMarketing Mix and Pestle Analysis of Mcdonalds in India3095 Words   |  13 Pagespolicies and rule according to the situation in the respective country of operation have helped in their success and thus making the customers â€Å"LOVING IT† Marketing Mix and Strategic decision making of McDonald    In this section we will discuss the marketing mix of Mc Donald and the strategies adopted by the company to counter the competition.    Marketing can be explained as the process in which a product or service is developed and then the price is calculated after evaluating all the related aspectsRead MoreMkt421 Marketing Mix1094 Words   |  5 Pagesof Phoenix MKT421 - Marketing Mix The marketing mix is comprised of four basic marketing strategies. The four strategies, which include product, place, price, and promotion, involve the decisions that a business must make to succeed. The marketing mix is reliant on how clear and defined the business’ target market is and how well the company directs the strategies towards its targeted market (Glenco McGraw-Hill, 3rd Edition). This paper will further define marketing mix, the four strategiesRead MoreMarketing Mix Essays2988 Words   |  12 PagesThe Channels of Distribution The products and the services are distributed electronically, where the costumers can buy online on the website or in stores located across Australia. 5 – Braaap’s potencial customer base and key pressure Before marketing your products and services it is important to define your customer base or target market. Braaap’s clients are people who love motorcycles whatever if it is professionally or just a sport on free time. There is a huge difference of ages between theRead MoreGeneric Marketing : Determine The Marketing Mix Essay1771 Words   |  8 Pages– 2935 Generic Marketing – Determine the Marketing mix Name – Pritpal Singh ID Number – A8947 SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Pritpal Singh A8947 ER - 1.1 (a) The elements of the marketing mix adopted by theRead MoreMarketing Mix Of Gionee Smartphones1204 Words   |  5 Pages Marketing Mix Analysis of Gionee Smartphones Kashyap Pd. Marahatta BUS 510 Marketing Management Professor: Dr. Geraldine Goodstone Mr. Krishna Khanal Westcliff University 25/09/2016 â€Æ' Abstract This paper intends to briefly analyze the marketing mix of Gionee smartphones. Despite the many changes that marketing mix has gone through, from four Ps to four As or from four Ps to four Cs, the marketing mix basically consists of product mix, price mix, promotion mix and place mix. This paper wouldRead MoreMarketing Mix - 4Ps of Marketing Mix1219 Words   |  5 PagesMarketing mix can be describes as the use and specification of the 4 Ps describing the strategic position of a product in the marketplace†¦ A prominent person to take centre stage was E. Jerome McCarthy in 1960; he proposed a four-P classification which was popularized. ( The marketing mix approach to marketing is a model of creating and implementing market strategies. The marketing mix stresses the mixing of different factors in a way that both organizational and consumer or target

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Hamlet Meaning Essay Example For Students

Hamlet Meaning Essay Within the play Hamlet there exists many puns and phrases, which have a doublemeaning. Little ploys on words which tend to add a bit of entertainment to thedialogue of the play. These forked tongue phrases are used by Shakespeare tocast an insight to the characters in the play to give them more depth andsubstance. However, most importantly these phrases cause the reader or audienceto think. They are able to show a double meaning that not all people would pickup on, which is the purpose of the comments. Little is known about Shakespeareslife, other than he was a great playwright whose works serve to meld literarycasts for ages to come. This was his occupation, he wrote and directed plays tobe performed. This was his sole form of income that we know of, it was his wayof putting the bread on the table. If people did not like what Shakespearewrote, then he would not earn any money. If the people didnt like what theysaw, he became the starving artist. Shakespeare wrote these dialogues in such amanner as to entertain both the Nobility, as well as the peasants. TheShakespearean theater is a physical manifestation of how Shakespeare catered tomore than one social class in his theatrical productions. These Shakespeareantheaters have a unique construction, which had specific seats for the wealthy,and likewise, a designated separate standing section for the peasants. Thisdefinite separation of the classes is also evident in Shakespeares writing, inas such that the nobility of the productions speak in poetic iambic pentameter,where as the peasants speak in ordinary prose. Perhaps Shakespeare incorporatedthese double meanings to the lines of his characters with the intent that only aselect amount of his audience were meant to hear it in either its doublemeaning, or its true meaning. However, even when the tragic hero Hamletswordplay is intentional. it is not always clear as to what purpose he uses it. To confuse or to clarify? Or to control his own uncensored thoughts? The energyand turmoil of his mind brings words thronging into speech, stretching,over-turning and contorting their implications. Sometimes Hamlet has to struggleto use the simplest words repeatedly, as he tries to force meaning to flow in asingle channel. To Ophelia, after he has encountered her in her loneliness,reading on a book, he repeats five times Get thee to anunnery, varying the phrase very little, simply reiterating what wasalready said by changing get to go. This well knownquote, to this day cannot be deciphered in its entirety, for nunnery is a placewhere nuns live, yet it is also a brothel. Hamlet seems to knowingly cast ashade of confusion into the minds of the audience or is it in fact claritywithin confusion. That is, the audience is able to better understand thethoughts and inner struggle of Hamlet via these conflicting terms. After Hamlethas visited his mother all alone in her closet and killed Polo nius,after she has begged him to speak no more, and after his fathersghost has reappeared, Hamlet repeats Good night five times, withstill fewer changes in the phrase than Get thee to a nunnery andthose among accompanying words only. So Hamlet seems to be struggling to containhis thoughts even by use of these simple words, rather than enforcing a singleand simple message as a first reading of the text might suggest; and the wordscome to bear deeper, more ironic or more blatant meanings. It is from thesephrases, which even manage to confuse the complex mind of Hamlet that we beginto get a glimpse into the intentions of Hamlets mind, and seeing just exactlythe way he ticks. Much of the dramatic action of this tragedy is within the headof Hamlet, and wordplay represents the amazing, contradictory, unsettled,mocking nature of that mind, as it is torn by disappointment and positive love,as Hamlet seeks both acceptance and punishment, action and stillness, and wishesfor consummation and a nnihilation within a world he perceives to be against him. He can be abruptly silent or vicious; he is capable of wild laughter and tears,and also playing polite and sane. The narrative is a kind of mystery and chase,so that, underneath the various guises of his wordplay, we are made keenly awareof his inner dissatisfaction, and come to expect some resolution at the end ofthe tragedy, some unambiguous giving out which will report Hamletand his cause aright to the unsatisfied among the reader. Hamlet himself isaware of this expectation as the end approaches, and this still further whetsour anticipation for what is to become. A commonly recurring theme throughoutthe play is that of honesty. It is introduced in the beginning of the play andas the play continues, its use becomes more and more common, as well as more andmore ironic. This theme within the play itself is ironic, for as Marcellus saidSomething is rotten in the state of Denmark and this corruption wesee so exhibited in the play is far from honest. When Hamlet applies the wordhonest t o the main characters of the play, his use of becomes undeniably ironic,and much of the dark humor of the play derives from Hamlets wordplay. Poloniusmarks that though Hamlets insults seem to make no sense, yet there ismethod in t. In Act II, it is Polonius that is the first target ofHamlets irony of the use of honest. Hamlet calls him first afishmonger which it has many meanings, including the implicationthat Ophelia is a whore and Polonius is her pimp. And of course, Polonius hasemployed his daughter in his plot to discover the depth of Hamletsmadness. When Polonius says he is not a fishmonger, Hamlet repliesThen I would you were so honest a man. In other words, he wishesPolonius was as honest as a simple fish seller, or even more insulting, ashonest as the pimp Hamlet insinuated he was. In this scene, Hamlet also usesthis ironic meaning of honesty against Rosencrantz and Guildenstern when hetells them I will not sort you with the rest of my servants, for, tospeak to you like an h onest man, I am most dreadfully attended. He seemsto mean that he cannot speak to them with honesty, because they themselves aredishonest in their intents. Honesty resonates as a theme in Hamlet becausenothing is, as it seems in Denmark. The King deceives the world and pretends alegitimacy he does not have; Hamlet deceives the court by feigning madness;Polonius, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern all try to deceive Hamlet into revealingwhy he is distraught, and no one knows what is truth and what is a lie. Theworld has not grown honest, as Rosencrantz claims, but dishonest, and no one wholives in it can keep his honesty pure from the corrupting air. Hamlet seems tobe the character that uses the majority of such puns and phrases in the play. History Individual Study EssayHe can be abruptly silent or vicious; he is capable of wild laughter and tears,and also playing polite and sane. The narrative is a kind of mystery and chase,so that, underneath the various guises of his wordplay, we are made keenly awareof his inner dissatisfaction, and come to expect some resolution at the end ofthe tragedy, some unambiguous giving out which will report Hamletand his cause aright to the unsatisfied among the reader. Hamlet himself isaware of this expectation as the end approaches, and this still further whetsour anticipation for what is to become. A commonly recurring theme throughoutthe play is that of honesty. It is introduced in the beginning of the play andas the play continues, its use becomes more and more common, as well as more andmore ironic. This theme within the play itself is ironic, for as Marcellus saidSomething is rotten in the state of Denmark and this corruption wesee so exhibited in the play is far from honest. When Hamlet applies the wordhonest to the main characters of the play, his use of becomes undeniably ironic,and much of the dark humor of the play derives from Hamlets wordplay. Poloniusmarks that though Hamlets insults seem to make no sense, yet there ismethod in t. In Act II, it is Polonius that is the first target ofHamlets irony of the use of honest. Hamlet calls him first afishmonger which it has many meanings, including the implicationthat Ophelia is a whore and Polonius is her pimp. And of course, Polonius hasemployed his daughter in his plot to discover the depth of Hamletsmadness. When Polonius says he is not a fishmonger, Hamlet repliesThen I would you were so honest a man. In other words, he wishesPolonius was as honest as a simple fish seller, or even more insulting, ashonest as the pimp Hamlet insinuated he was. In this scene, Hamlet also usesthis ironic meaning of honesty against Rosencrantz and Guildenstern when hetells them I will not sort you with the rest of my servant s, for, tospeak to you like an honest man, I am most dreadfully attended. He seemsto mean that he cannot speak to them with honesty, because they themselves aredishonest in their intents. Honesty resonates as a theme in Hamlet becausenothing is, as it seems in Denmark. The King deceives the world and pretends alegitimacy he does not have; Hamlet deceives the court by feigning madness;Polonius, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern all try to deceive Hamlet into revealingwhy he is distraught, and no one knows what is truth and what is a lie. Theworld has not grown honest, as Rosencrantz claims, but dishonest, and no one wholives in it can keep his honesty pure from the corrupting air. Hamlet seems tobe the character that uses the majority of such puns and phrases in the play. These phrases, which have double meaning, could represent the inner turmoil,which seems to be tearing Hamlet apart. By seeing a definite double meaning tomany phrases in the play, we are able to easily see that all is not as it shouldbe. Hamlets personality is thrown into chaos. He is in mourning the death ofhis father, and then his mother marries his uncle. He is enraged at her, and ontop of all of this he sees the ghost of his father commanding him to avenge hiswrongful murder. Yet, amongst all this turmoil, I believe that Hamlet was onlyplaying the part of being crazy. He speaks in riddles and plays on words inorder to create a certain suspicion about his sanity. This abnormal activitygives him the ability to sneak a few insults by without having to directlyconfront his enemies. It seems to be quite a bit worse if the person who wasinsulted isnt exactly sure whether or not they were just insulted. Hamlet isable to interject these insults without even the other character noticing, whichis the art of insult it is this unpredictability of action, this sporadic boutsof insanity and sanity, the inner turmoil brewing within Hamlet, which keeps theaudiences interest. Nobody is really sure whether or not Hamlet was insane. Many have theories and beliefs, but Shakespeare never came out and said hedefinitely is or definitely is not sane, he only hints. There are validarguments on either side, for Hamlet Himself said I am mad butnorth-northwest; that is he is only mad about one thing in particular. Thewordplay in Hamlet is a representation of the complexity of the minds of thecharacters that Shakespeare created. It is a depiction of the inner turmoilwithin a character struggling with sanity. However, more importantly it isnecessary to keep in mind that Shakespeare was a playwright and that the play onwords did one thing in particular, which is why Shakespeare lived to write somany plays, Hamlet, because of its wording is entertaining and that made all thedifference.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Thelonious Monk free essay sample

Monk is known as one of the most unique, Inimitable piano players of all time. Monk was both ahead of his time, and deeply rooted In tradition, and used his extraordinary gift of perfect pitch to learn songs and memorize them fast. Theologies had a love for the Plano from a young age, and grew up In Manhattan around lots of musicians. After falling academically as a young high school student he decided to drop out of school and pursue being a musician. He went on tour with an evangelic healer for 2 years, shortly after dropping out.When he came back home he was playing out as much as possible. HIS reputation grew as one of the best around as he began to grow. He was co-house plants at a club called Millions Playhouse with Bud Powell. The after- hours jam sessions that went on there, along with a number of other jazz clubs, gave birth to what is now known as be-bop. We will write a custom essay sample on Thelonious Monk or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Musicians he played with were Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Mary Lou Williams, Kenny Clarke, Oscar Pettifogs, Max Roach, Tad Demeanor, to name a few. The jam sessions that took place here were inspiring many musicians of the day.From the mime Theologies was on the scene this new thing called modern jazz was emerging, and people either really liked it or didnt understand it at all. And Monk was the leader of modern-Jazz. No one was playing the way Monk did, he was just purely original. When Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie had questions regarding music they went to Monk for the answer. Monk was annoyed when he heard people praising Bird and Dizzy saying that started the revolution to modern Jazz. Monk said this in an interview with a French Jazz magazine: l feel like I have contributed more to modern jazz than all of the other musicians combined.Thats why I dont like to hear: Gillespie and Parker brought the revolution to Jazz When I know most of the ideas came from me. Dizzy and Bird did nothing for me musically, they didnt teach me anything. (the Life and Times of Theologies Monk, book p. 105 Robin D. G. Kelley). Monk was bitter about these guys because theyd get all the gigs meanwhile Monk for 6 years couldnt even play in the city he grew up In after getting his Cabaret Card taking from him after being falsely arrested for drug possession. The drugs were In fact his friend Bud Powell and Monk took the rap for him.But Monk found work In gigs during this time often in Brooklyn, or out of town. Jazz was spirit of the country, and Monks music was perfect for the time, even though It wasnt being appreciated by all for what it was. Theologies Monk was born October 10th, 1917 In Rocky Mount, North Carolina, where he spent the first four years of his life. Both Theologies parents were son/daughter of slaves that grew up In North Carolina. Theologies was Monks fathers, grandfathers, and great- grandfathers name. All witnessed the battles that took in their backyards and neighborhood.The struggle by Theologies read-grandparents and grandparents caused Theologies to feel more fortunate to racism in North Carolina and Join her cousin in New York City. She had to get out of North Carolina so she took her kids up to New York City, leaving behind Monks father, because he was battling a sickness where he couldnt live with the city air. Monk was the middle brother of one older sister Marion and one younger brother Thomas. The four of them began a new life in Manhattan, in the San Juan Hill neighborhood, where racism and violence was happening every day. Theologies had to battle all the races to and from his walk to school.When he came back there was only one thing he wanted to do, piano. Inspired by Lie Armstrong he originally began with the trumpet. But when his trumpet instructor saw him nodding on the piano he said Mimi goat take up piano. So he did. He taught himself how to read music by ease- dropping on his sisters piano lessons and watching like a hawk over her shoulder as she practiced. When his love for the piano over matched Marinas she gave them up to him. His teacher then, Simon Wolf, a classical pianist was astonished by Monks ability to read and memorize difficult pieces so fast.Lessons were an expensive . 75 cents per half hour, and Monks mother scrubbed many floors to be able to afford it. After two years with Wolf, Monk moved on from him to pursue his love of Jazz. It was clear to all who heard Theologies that he was extremely gifted. Monk got in within the stride pianist like Art Datum and Willie The Lion Smith and others. These guys got together to share ideas and Jam, all of them being older then Monk Theologies took it as a very important learning period. This type of music helped Theologies develop a very strong left hand technique.He dropped out of high school to pursue he life of being a piano player. His mother was okay with it as long as he was working and not being a bum. So, when he was 17 he took his first gig and traveled cross country with an evangelic healer and did not return home for two years. All that is really known is that it was a very eye opening experience, seeing miracles happen before his eyes. We played and she healed. Monk was a man of very few words would answer questions with as few words possible. Monk didnt do drugs, although the media had look as if he was a Junkie.He wasnt an idiot savant like people lamed neither, he was shy around the media, but his close friends and family would classify him as a Jouster, and a witty one at that. He was a family man and took his work seriously. Monk was quiet, and his few words were said in a deep tone and often mumbled a lot of people didnt get him. Monk went to the beat of his own drum. All he worried about was making sure his family had a place to eat and sleep and tried to make it as comfortable as possible; and making music. He would go out on stage with the big diamond on his finger, and wearing eccentric hats and fur coats.To his fans, he was the hippest guy around; to the others they didnt get him and were more than likely Just racist and wanted nothing to do with That type of music. Monk played everything different, never two things alike. In a time where all musicians wanted to play as many notes as possible, Monk loved to use space and silence in his solos, sometimes dropping out completely Just to see what would happen. He believed the loudest note was silence. Critics were displeased by Monks unique style, and it took some getting used to him before he got to where he really broke through professionally.Musically he had been what he called His way since he was 15 years old. But in the asss and asss besides gigs here and there with bands have anything long term. But it all changed after tenor saxophonist Coleman Hawkins hired him first to play for a lengthy amount of time and also to record an album in 1944. Suddenly there were a lot more people on the Monk bandwagon. In 1947, at age 30 Monk made his first album as a leader with Blue Note. Blue Note allowed Monk to choose his band members for the album. Theologies, who had already been on the Jazz scene for half his life, chose musicians who werent well know yet.Guys like dress Sullivan and George Await; Sahibs Shiva and seventeen-year-old Danny Quebec West on alto saxophones; Billy Smith on tenor; and bassists Gene Ramey and John Simmons. On some recordings Monk employed Count Basis drummer Rosier Shadow Wilson; and on others, the drums was Art Blakely. For his last Blue Note session as a leader in 1952, Monk was surrounded by an all-star band, including Kenny Dirham (trumpet), Lou Donaldson (alto), Lucky Thompson (tenor), Nelson Boyd (bass), and Max Roach (drums).In the end, although all of Monks Blue Note ides are hailed today as some of his greatest recordings, at the time of their release in the late sass and early sass, they proved to be a commercial failure. Monk went on to record albums with Prestige, Riverside, and Columbia. Monk was the second most recorded Jazz pianist only to Duke Longtime. As Monk grew old he is classified with a chemical imbalance and diagnosed as bi-polar. He continued to tour, doing world tours late in his career, but he slowly was losing that magic touch. He declined physically and mentally, he was mixing medications and getting sick a lot.In 1965 His outs with bi-polar were getting worse and worse. Getting more and more disconnected from the world then he was to begin with, he decides to focus on his health and his family. Until 1977 Monk was playing only very occasional gigs and in 1977 he retired. Theologies lived another 5 years before having a stroke and dying. Theologies is remember and respected as one of the few Jazz Giants. His musical genius is that unlike anyone elses. He contributed many great standards to be enjoyed for hopefully decades to come. It was a rough road, but the music which was made by the man, Theologies Monk, was pure genius.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Chinas Political Overview

Chinas Political Overview China’s has a huge population, vast geographical span, and social multiplicity. As a result, China has a unique political system. The economic reforms China put in place in the 1980s entailed the decentralization of major central government functions to local governments. As a result the central government found it continuously intricate to assert its authority.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on China’s Political Overview specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To implement new polices, the leaders in the central government found it necessary to build consensus among party members, local communities, plus influential non-party members. In the past, the communist party exercised its control over the society but now the increasing freedom to make choices about education and employment weakened the work unit system that was once the basic cell of the communist party control over society. China is the world’s second largest economy and is ruled by the Chinese communist party, which has been in power for more that six decades. In spite of this fact, China’s political institutions and political culture have evolved significantly over those years. China’s power structure has been a monopoly but many analysts both in China and abroad have queried the long-term feasibility of it, which the party remains above the law and civil society and the freedom of speech and alliance are strictly guarded. Thankfully, China’s retiring Premier Wen Jiabao called for political transformation and the reorganization of the leadership system of the party and the state. He noted that without the success of political reform, it is impossible to institute economic structural changes. The Chinese Communist Party controls the state and the society in China. It has power over the armed forces, and is in charge of employing people in all political, state-owned, and public institutions. The media , judiciary and the internal security apparatus is also under the control of the Chinese communist. China’s governing party enjoys maximum party control, by ensuring that the highest ranking state officials at every level of government simultaneously hold senior party positions,. The country was able to shield its industries from competition by implementing unfair economic policies, such as rules stating that Chinese should own a 51 percent stake in a foreign joint undertaking. Since its entry into the World Trade Organization, the China’s economy became market oriented and the country has become the major manufacture of most of the world’s products. China has one of the highest foreign direct investment rates in the world (Morrison 7). This has enabled the country to produce low cost items in large scale.Advertising Looking for essay on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The abi lity of Chinese government to control the economic environment has attracted many investments (Thomas 28). The high economic growth has given the country the wealth it requires to develop its infrastructure, which is essential for development. The Chinese Communist Party realized that it had to adapt to the fast changing society.Therefore, it developed mechanisms of modifying its governing ideology to facilitate the necessary transformations for the sake of its continued existence. Yet it was careful in its approach and avoided challenging its ideology to an extent, which would further compromise its already questionable justifications for maintaining an everlasting cartel on power. In its quest to get into power, the People’s Republic of China the Party assured the citizenry that it would help peasant farmers and workers improve their working conditions and livehoods. It also guaranteed that socialistic ideologies would be entrenched, and all property would be publicly owned . In its constitution, the party still authoritatively decrees the recognition of communism to be its supreme ideal and ultimate goal. As a ruling party, the Chinese Communist Party now defines itself as representing the basic aspirations of the vast majority of the Chinese people including capitalists. In 2007, China at last passed a law protecting private property rights. This was after realizing that privately owned enterprises had started achieving double-digit economic growth rates in its coastal provinces and that the real estate segments were booming. Morrison, Wayne. China’s Economic Conditions. Congressional Research Service. 2012. Web. Thomas, Stephen. China’s Economic Development from 1860 to the Present: The Roles of Sovereignty and the Global Economy. Forum on Public Policy. 2012. Web.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Quick Geography Facts About Mexico

Quick Geography Facts About Mexico Mexico, officially called the United Mexican States, is a country located in North America south of the  United States  and north of  Belize  and  Guatemala . It has coastline along the  Pacific Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and the  Gulf of Mexico  and it is considered the 13th largest country in the world based on area.   Mexico is also the 11th most  populous country  in the world. It is a regional power for Latin America with an economy that is strongly tied to that of the United States. Quick Facts About Mexico Population: 112,468,855 (July 2010 estimate)Capital: Mexico CityBordering Countries: Belize, Guatemala, and the United StatesLand Area: 758,450 square miles (1,964,375 square kilometers)Coastline: 5,797 miles (9,330 kilometers)Highest Point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba at 18,700 feet (5,700 meters)Lowest Point: Laguna Salada at -32 feet (-10 meters) History of Mexico The earliest settlements in Mexico were those of the Olmec, Maya, Toltec, and Aztec. These groups developed highly complex cultures prior to any European influence. From 1519-1521, Hernan Cortes took over Mexico and founded a colony belonging to Spain that lasted for almost 300 years. On September 16, 1810, Mexico proclaimed its independence from Spain after Miguel Hidalgo formed the countrys declaration of independence, Viva Mexico! However, independence did not come until 1821 after years of war. In that year, Spain and Mexico signed a treaty ending the war for independence. The treaty also laid out plans for a constitutional monarchy. The monarchy failed, and, in 1824, the independent republic of Mexico was established. During the later part of the 19th century, Mexico underwent several presidential elections and fell into a period of social and economic problems. These problems led to a revolution that lasted from 1910 to 1920. In 1917, Mexico established a new constitution, and, in 1929, the Institutional Revolutionary Party rose and controlled politics in the country until 2000. Since 1920 though, Mexico has undergone a variety of reforms in the agriculture, political, and social sectors that allowed it to grow into what it is today. Following World War II, Mexicos government focused primarily on economic growth, and, in the 1970s, the country became a large producer of petroleum. In the 1980s though, falling oil prices caused Mexicos economy to decline, and, as a result, it entered into several agreements with the U.S. In 1994, Mexico joined the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with the U.S. and Canada, and, in 1996, it joined the World Trade Organization (WTO). Government of Mexico Today, Mexico is considered a federal republic, with a chief of state and a head of government making up its executive branch of government. It should be noted, however, that both of these positions are filled by the President. Mexicos legislative branch is comprised of a bicameral National Congress which consists of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.The judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Court of Justice. Mexico is divided into 31 states and one federal district (Mexico City) for local administration. Economics and Land Use in Mexico Mexico currently has a free market economy that has mixed modern industry and agriculture. Its economy is still growing, and there is a large inequality in the  distribution of income. Mexicos largest trading partners are the U.S. and Canada due to NAFTA.The largest industrial products that are exported from Mexico include food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables and tourism.The main agricultural products of Mexico are corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes, beef, poultry, dairy and wood products. Geography and Climate of Mexico Mexico has a highly varied topography that consists of rugged mountains with high elevations, deserts, high plateaus and low coastal plains. For example, its highest point is at 18,700 feet (5,700 m) while its lowest is -32 feet (-10 m). Mexicos climate is also variable, but it is mainly tropical or desert. Its capital, Mexico City, has its highest average temperature in April at 80ËšF (26ËšC) and its lowest in January at 42.4ËšF (5.8ËšC). More Facts about Mexico The main ethnic groups in Mexico are Indian-Spanish (Mestizo) 60%, Indian 30%, Caucasian 9%, other 1%.The only official language in Mexico is Spanish.Mexicos literacy rate is 91.4%.The largest city in Mexico is Mexico City, followed by Ecatepec, Guadalajara, Puebla, Nezahualcà ³yotl, and Monterrey. (Its important to note, however, that Ecatepec and Nezahualcà ³yotl are also suburbs of Mexico City.) Which U.S. States Border Mexico? Mexico shares its northern border with the United States, with the Texas-Mexico border formed by the Rio Grande. In total, Mexico borders four states in the southwestern U.S. ArizonaCaliforniaNew MexicoTexas Sources Central Intelligence Agency. (26 July 2010). CIA - The World Factbook - Mexico.Retrieved from: (n.d.). Mexico: History, Geography, Government, and Culture- from: United States Department of State. (14 May 2010). Mexico.Retrieved from:

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Social Topic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Social Topic - Essay Example Of all of the diseases which are passed along socially, HIV and AIDS are the most feared and misunderstood. The purpose of this paper is to examine and research the social disease known as HIV and AIDS. When talking about any disease, even sexually transmitted diseases, it is important to know that diseases are not prejudice. Yes, there is genetically inherited diseases which take place with respect to an individual’s genotype and there are social diseases that result from certain cases of being exposed or from people’s behavior, like unsafe sex. Diseases however are a medical problem and are without human prejudice. Diseases, whether bacterial in nature or viral in nature, are opportunists and will take over and infect any available living thing that meets their needs. In other words, a viral infection does not simply take over in those with a type of orientation or religion. It happens when host is available. When the first reports of HIV and AIDS came into view in the 1980’s, a sexual revolution had ended and then it came a deadly STD where before that, only menacing STD’s were around. Because of the medical scare attached to HIV and AIDS, people responded as they have for millennia with a need to find blame. The 1980’s also brought in the beginning of a socially acceptable alternative to the strait life style. For many, this meant an easy scapegoat. The many gay men just gaining a sense of social acceptance were quickly labeled as carriers and/or spreaders of HIV and AIDS. The truth of the matter however, is that HIV is a virus which is spread through certain ways. This in actuality, has nothing to do with whether a person is gay or straight but rather whether the person has had unprotected sex or has been infected with HIV positive blood. To better understand how HIV is spread, it is important to mention that HIV is categorized as a ‘retro virus’. A r etro virus is a virus that can be contracted but can then lay inactive for a

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Characters from Alice Hoffman's Saint Helene Essay

Characters from Alice Hoffman's Saint Helene - Essay Example The main character of the novel is Saint Helene though of course. The characters are set in the era of candles and lights made out of paper bags, sand and candles. Helena’s mother takes the authority in the house of replacing every melting pot of white wax with fresh candles. However it is shown in the beginning that Helene’s indifferent to her surroundings. Helene went to a high school called Middleborough High till her junior year. She was known to be a quiet recluse girl who had been dejected by the people around. Her companionship was very little. She was barely known her school. Whatever little was she known, she was known as someone who would spend her entire afternoon in a cafeteria filling paper pages. That was all people knew about her. The whole school used to look down upon her. The girls around her used to thank their stars that they are not Helen. That is the kind aura with which Alice Hoffman has set the character of the book in the beginning of the novel. To many she is unrelatable. She is not your routine girl. She hardly cares about her exterior and how she appears to the outside world. She is known to be fat, ugly, sorrowful . she has no friends. People think she is lost in her own world and the girls in her school find relief in the fact that they are not HER. ... However, she is a strong person from within. She puts a tough fight against the insulting connotations sent her way by her peers and school people. (Hoffman) As the story progresses her character is shown to evolve. Slowly and gradually she is redeemed in her eyes and in the eyes of people around her. She gains confidence, holds her ground and starts becoming more viable and acceptable by the society that was around her. The evolution in the character was phenomenal. It’s the best character in the book and makes inroads into this world without having the most appealing features or the most charismatic habits. She is by far the best character that this story has to offer. Bibliography Hoffman, Alice. Saint Helene.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Teen pregnancy Case Essay Example for Free

Teen pregnancy Case Essay Effects Teen pregnancy causes dramatic changes to a teen girls lifestyle, emotional well-being and body. According to, some of the most long-lasting effects of teen pregnancy involve the emotional stress of planning for parenthood, or planning for adoption. Prevention/Solution The only guaranteed method of avoiding teen pregnancy is abstinence. If a teen does decide to become sexually active, she should talk to her parents, physician, counselor or other mentor or health-care professional about available methods of birth control. Mainstream MTVs hit shows 16 and Pregnant and Teen Mom have brought teenage-pregnancy awareness and prevention into mainstream popular culture. Sponsored Links Are you a Teen Girl? Having sex has consequences! Come read the stories from other teens. Family Problems? Find resources and help for Filipino families Want to get pregnant? Many people carry genetic mutations that can be passed on to offspring. Pregnancy = Numb Fingers? Relax. Take a Deep Breath. We have the Answers. No More Numb Fingers Related Searches Teenage Pregnancy Help Teen Pregnancy Pregnancy Facts Pregnancy Abortion Unplanned Pregnancy More to Explore Reasons Why Teenagers Get Pregnant How to Support a Pregnant Teenager 9 Infertility Causes in Young Women (Parent Society) Is That Normal? 9 Surprising Age-Related Changes (Shape) Whats this? References National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy: 50-State ComparisonsCost of Teen Childbearing National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy: BrieflyTeen Pregnancy Rates in the United States, 1988-2006 MSNBC: HealthTeen Birth Rates Highest in Most-Religious States Photo Credit Thinkstock Images/Comstock/Getty Images Read more: What Is Teenage Pregnancy? |

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown †Point of View Essay -- Young Goodma

     Ã‚   In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† how does the author present the characters, dialogue, actions, setting and events which comprise the narrative in this short story? This essay will answer these questions. R. W. B. Lewis in â€Å"The Return into Time: Hawthorne† states that â€Å"there is always more to the world in which Hawthorne’s characters move than any one of them can see at a glance† (77). In Hawthorne’s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† this fact is especially true since the main character, Goodman Brown, is a naà ¯ve hero and since the narrator tells much of the story through the limited point of view of the protagonist. In this story the author uses a third-person narrator, who uses proper names and third-person pronouns to designate the various characteris in the tale: YOUNG GOODMAN BROWN came forth at sunset, into the street of Salem village, but put his head back, after crossing the threshold, to exchange a parting kiss with his young wife. And Faith, as the wife was aptly named, thrust her own pretty head into the street, letting the wind play with the pink ribbons of her cap, while she called to Goodman Brown.   The narrator possesses the capability of reading the thoughts and feelings of the protagonist, the young Puritan husband, Goodman Brown, only, from among all the characters. As Brown turns the corner at the meeting house, he thinks: "Poor little Faith!" thought he, for his heart smote him. "What a wretch am I, to leave her on such an errand! She talks of dreams, too. Methought, as she spoke, there was trouble in her face, as if a dream had warned her what work is to be done tonight. But, no, no! 'twould kill her to think it. Well; she's a blessed angel on earth; and after this one night, I'l... ...agonist as the character through whom the perceptions of the site are arriving to the reader. This inconsistency of viewpoint within given paragraphs may be a source for ambiguity within the tale. In conclusion, we have seen how in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† the author presents the characters, dialogue, actions, setting and events which comprise the narrative in this short story, and what may be a source of ambiguity in the tale.  Ã‚      WORKS CITED Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms, 7th ed. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1999. Hawthorne, Nathaniel. â€Å"Young Goodman Brown.† 1835. Lewis, R. W. B. â€Å"The Return into Time: Hawthorne.† In Hawthorne – A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by A.N. Kaul. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Arguments for and Against Corporate Social Responsibility Essay

â€Å"A business’s obligation to follow goals that are good for both organization and society in the long-term, and are not required by law.† Corporate Social Responsibility The term â€Å"corporate social responsibility† came in to common use in the early 1970s. It means the duty of an organization towards society in order to prove itself responsible about its actions and their effects on environment, community and external stakeholders. It means that an organization is responsible for all its action towards the people who are affected by its actions and processes. Therefore, corporate social responsibility can be defined as: â€Å"Operating a business in a manner that meets or exceeds the ethical, legal, commercial and public expectations that society has of business.† The Socioeconomic View The Socioeconomic view stated that it is the responsibility of managers and all organization s to take care of public interests as well as their profits. Each organization should be responsible for all its actions which may harm or benefit community and should take actions to stop any malpractices in its operations, finance, marketing and human resource departments. Business organizations should not only act for their own profit but also for the welfare of community. They should take an active part in happenings in the society and should perform such actions which can improve the political, economical, social and environmental conditions of the society. In short, corporate social responsibility makes an organization to play its role in the improvement and welfare of society. Arguments For and Against Corporate Social Responsibility According to Classical view of social responsibility of an organization, the management and managers of an organization are responsible for maximizing organizational profits only. It is not their duty to take care of public interest. The only purpose of establishing a business is to generate profits and therefore, he only duty of managers is to maximize profits and reduce costs of doing business. Given are some of the arguments for and against corporate social responsibility: 1-Corporations as Moral Agents Business organizations are an important part of any society and play an important role in determining the economic and social condition of any society. As organizations are considered as one of the major factors affecting economy of a country, they should be responsible of what they are giving to the society. They generate profits by selling their products and services to customers and, therefore, should be responsible for any good or bad effects of their actions and products on consumers. On the other hand, the proponents of this view state that organizations should be responsible only for generating profits. As the owners or investors are also a part of community, the organization performs its duty by maximizing the wealth of their shareholders. The sole purpose of an organization is not to serve society by getting involved in welfare activities. The organization serves the community by making products and rendering services. Therefore, there is no other duty of an organization towards society. 2-Social Responsibility and Economic Performance The advocates of corporate social responsibility state that by getting involved in community services, an organization gets a chance to improve its revenues. The social welfare activities improve the good will of the organization and make its corporate image better than its competitors. Customers prefer to buy products and services from an organization which proves it to be socially responsible. Those who say that organization should not be socially responsible state that such activities increase the cost of doing business. As one of the major goals of a business is to reduce the costs, such practices are in opposition with benefit of business owners. For example, investing in a production plant which emits less carbon to the environment needs higher expenses as compared to the normal, cheap plant but is dangerous for environment is a question for managers. 3-Social Responsibility and Ethics Organizations should not be involved in any kind of practices which may give rise to the feeling of inequity and unfair actions in society. Discrimination based on gender, race and nationality is one major action which is considered as the social responsibility of organizations. When giving promotions to employees, every person should be given an equal chance to advance in the career and should be treated fairly. The proponents of corporate social responsibility also admit the fact that the organizational practices should be ethical in nature but to a limited extent. The practices should not harm anyone but should place organizational interest before the community interest. 4-Social Responsibility and Environment A corporation must produce goods and services that are beneficial to society while making sure that the processes of production also avoid damage, such as pollution. The initiatives such as green management and environment friendly products make it clear that customers want to purchase the products which are safe for them and do not damage environment. They also prefer those organizations which prove that they are not damaging the natural environment of earth in any case. On the other hand, the proponents of the view state that saving environment may increase the cost of their business and will make the organization less efficient in a number of its practices. They put the question of buying one kind of machinery over the other which is environment friendly but incurs huge costs. Conclusion  In order to get better financial performance and good will, it’s better for an organization to realize its corporate social responsibility and manage all its operations in an ethical way. Only an improved society can lead to an improved business which is in favor of both internal and external stakeholders of an organization. More and more organizations are taking serious steps to get involved in socially responsible actions and consider it profitable in the long as well as short run.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Personal Troubles

When our country goes into a recession and Jobs have to get cut that is out of the individuals control. It isn't their fault a company has to lay people off due to lack of money. Also you see things like the cost of living and healthcare which are very expensive for people to afford right now. A lot of people have a Job and work hard and still can't afford healthcare or a a decent home. That Is my understanding of the public Issues. Things that happen in the country that Is a bad break for people. My understanding of personal Issues is things that happen to certain individuals such as n Injury or Illness, another thing out of their control.People get hurt and can't work and that results In a lower standard of living for them and their family. Also some personal issues can be controlled such as when someone wants to get another job or quit their job. Some get fired for not performing well, this is something they could have controlled and as a result are now in poverty. It goes both wa ys there are way people get into poverty that are Just out of their control and some ways some of these people could have prevented. In many ways â€Å"personal troubles† and â€Å"public issues† go hand in hand when it comes to poverty.Often times public issues can cause personal troubles. For example, a factory closing In a small town is a public Issue, affecting the city government and citizens of the town. The closing of a factory will cause personal troubles for the workers who are now unemployed. Personal troubles and public Issues can both lead to poverty. Factors that lead to poverty that can be controlled by an individual could be how they spend/save the money that they earn. A person that makes a argue income, for example, might not be good at investing their money into the needs of their family and waste it instead, bringing them into poverty.On the other hand, a family with a lesser income who save and spend wisely may be considered â€Å"middle-class†. Factors that are beyond an individual's control might include war, the country's economy, no available Jobs, and catastrophes (hurricanes, earthquakes, etc. ). Sociological Imagination Is the link between â€Å"personal troubles† and â€Å"public Issues†. To understand this you must understand the connection between the two Issues. Personal troubles describes the character of an Individual and what social Issues are affecting him or her directly.Public issues are matters that can't be controlled by the contribute to poverty that an individual can control are; controlling spending tendencies, get an education to help get Jobs, and living in an affordable area. Factors that are beyond the individuals control are; prices of necessary life demands such as food, clothing shelter, and taxes. Both of these factors contribute to poverty because the personal troubles of one person will eventually lead to public issues. An example loud be a individual who gets fired for not having the appropriate skills brings up the societies unemployment rate.After thoroughly learning about Sociological Imagination it is clear that you must understand what public issues is and personal troubles is. Public issues are problems that come up that you can't control. And it does not only affect you as an individual but the society as a whole. Personal troubles are problems that society creates that affect you as an individual. Many times public issues and personal troubles are linked together. In response to Poverty in the US there are many resistances where the public issues create personal troubles on an individual.For example, if a company goes out of business and goes bankrupt then everyone in that company is now unemployed. That is something they had no control over and now it's a personal trouble for them. I think that a personal problem pertaining to poverty could be someone who doesn't manage or invest his or her income well. If an injury were to happen and they do n't have enough money to cover it, I think that would be something they could have prevented. You can prevent an injury and you can also learn how to deal with your money better.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

The Shaping of Popular Consent essayEssay Writing Service

The Shaping of Popular Consent essayEssay Writing Service The Shaping of Popular Consent essay The Shaping of Popular Consent essayAbraham Lincoln is one of the most prominent American political leaders. He is a unique person who contributed to the development of the American nation. Abraham Lincoln had almost no previous military experience before his entering the White House. Nevertheless, he managed to succeed as a military leader, when he assumed the powers of the U.S. Commander in Chief. His strategic insight, his leadership skills, and his will to fight helped him to change the course of the Civil War† and save the Union.1 Researchers utilized a wide range of sources, including archival documents, biographies, literary works and poems, paintings, sculpture and engravings, to evaluate the role of Lincoln in American history. Abraham Lincoln is represented as the savior of the American nation, the greatest emancipator, â€Å"man of the people†, the first American and self-made man. Abraham Lincoln was born in poverty, but managed to get self-education.2 He was the first American President, who was born and raised in the U.S. He gave freedom to the slaves. Besides, he demonstrated his virtues, e.g. honesty, simplicity and self-confidence. Abraham Lincoln’s historical speeches glorify the â€Å"virtues of property ownership, individual freedom and American democracy.†3 Thesis Statement: Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, led the Civil War, protected the federal territorial integrity, abolished slavery to promote equality. Lincoln was an outstanding person whose place in the U. S. history cannot be taken by anyone else. The major goal of this paper is to analyze the historical significance of Abraham Lincoln for the United States, paying special attention to his role in the Civil War.Abraham Lincoln: some facts from his biography Abraham Lincoln, the 16-th President of the United States of America, was born in 1809. According to researchers, he was born â€Å"in a log cabin on a barren farm in the backw oods of Kentucky, about three miles west of a place called Hedgesville in what is now La Rue County.†4 In 1811, his family moved to a farm Knob Creek. In 1831, he served as a pilot. In 1834, he ran for the House of Representatives, Illinois. In 1836, he entered John Stuart’s law school. In 1842, he married. His wife was Mary Todd. In 1861, Lincoln was elected president and the Civil war began. In 1863, he used the Emancipation Proclamation. In 1864, he was reelected president. In 1865, the Civil War ended. In 1865, on April 14, Lincoln was shot by his opponents.The key events that shaped Abraham Lincoln’s life  and influenced his decisions  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are several events that shaped Abraham Lincoln’s life and influenced his decisions. Some of these events led him to making history changing accomplishments. When Lincoln was 9, his mother died. The boy experienced loss, but he did not give up. He was affected by the imp act of loss throughout his childhood years. In 1832, Abraham Lincoln served in the Black Hawk War.   He was one of those soldiers who joined the independent military units. Abraham Lincoln joined the independent spy company of Jacob Early that major goal of which â€Å"to operate separately of the three brigades of the new army.†5 In 1831-1837, Abraham Lincoln lived and worked in New Salem, Illinois.   This period in his life played a crucial role in his further career. These years could be defined as â€Å"the Vanity Fair of his life†, the time for searching, of disengaging from Mother and Father, and of extending the tendrils of his mind.†6 Self-education helped Lincoln in his political career and in his decision making. This period of self-educations provided Lincoln with massive opportunities in finding answers to many serious questions. He was growing intellectually because he used literature, read Shakespeare and many other classic authors. In 1850, Lin coln’s son died of tuberculosis. This event was a blow to Lincoln. His decision was to refer to God. Lincoln came to the conclusion that everything that happened in his life was God’s will. Lincoln felt self-confidence. He was ready to continue his struggle to never give up. Since that time, Lincoln followed the religious philosophy that all people are created equal. In 1861, Lincoln was elected president. He said, â€Å"You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I have the most solemn one to â€Å"preserve, protect and defend it.†7The role of Abraham Lincoln in the Civil War   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Abraham Lincoln played an important role in the Civil War. He expressed the major war aims, followed the proper strategies and contributed to the success of the North in war. In 1860, during the 16-th presidential election, the Republican Party led by Abraham Lincoln demonstrated its opposition to the expansion of sla very into the territories of the U.S. Abraham Lincoln won the elections, but before Lincoln’s inauguration on March 4, 1861, several states refused to support his political views. As a result, seven states wanted to keep slavery through the formation of the Confederacy. The Civil War was one of the first industrial wars, in which railroads, the telegraph services, steamships operations, and mass production of weapons were widely used. Abraham Lincoln demonstrated the best traits of his character to unite people to fight against slavery. He was â€Å"more successful in communicating with the people, more skillful as a political leader in keeping factions working together for the war effort, better able to endure criticism and work with his critics to achieve a common goal† than the leader of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis.8Lincoln’s greatest speeches reflect his political decisions, morality, and self-representation. He was an excellent orator. The Gettysburg A ddress is one of his well-known speeches in American history. The Gettysburg Address was delivered during the Civil War, on November 19, 1863, several months after the defeat of the Confederacy army at the Battle of Gettysburg by the Union armies. Here is the first part of the speech, which reflects Lincoln’s role in the Civil War:Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.9Lincoln’s speech lasted just two minutes, he red only ten lines, but as an excellent orator, h e managed to sum up the key values and ideals that would help to create one of the most powerful economies of the world. The U. S. President spoke about American independence, about the role of freedom for the Nation. Abraham Lincoln could be viewed as the proponent of peace, as he spoke about the end to the Civil War. The Gettysburg Address was an important tool to ensure the Nation’s commitment to democratic ideals. Abraham Lincoln placed emphasis on equal justice, providing unfaltering resolution and establishing democracy.Abraham Lincoln as a historical hero  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Abraham Lincoln can be viewed as a historical hero. In fact, Americans glorified no historical hero more than the U.S. President Abraham Lincoln. As a Commander in Chief, Abraham Lincoln preserved the Union and as a Chief Executive, he â€Å"put a fragile Union back together and ended slavery.†10 The contribution of Abraham Lincoln’s leadership style to the vic tory in the Civil Way influenced successor generations of American citizens in preserving the established values and legacies. The preservation of the Union and the abolition of slavery are two major contributions of the U.S. President Lincoln. As a emancipator of slaves, Abraham Lincoln can be regarded as a national hero. On September 22, 1862, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation, in which he said,That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundredand sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.11Although t he Confederate did not end the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln signed the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in order to turn the war around, fighting for the preservation of the Union and abolition of slavery. The emancipation of slaves in the U.S. led to the Reconstruction Era.Although Abraham Lincoln was criticized, he succeeded as president and his political decisions and actions led to the numerous decisive battlefield outcomes and confirmed his success as an honest person and powerful political leaders. The Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. can be viewed as â€Å"public confirmation of the judgment of scholars† that this political leader stands for the model of democratic leadership.12 The contributions of Abraham Lincoln to the American nation help to assess his greatness in terms of his presidency, his leadership style and political decisions. Abraham Lincoln’s political strategy was aimed at addressing slavery and ensuring freedom. His role as emancipator has been highly valued by further generation. In general, Abraham Lincoln’s fame is â€Å"a growing fame, not a fading fame.†13During the Civil War, he managed to effectively use the power of government, which included both the political power and military force. His political decisions and actions were based on the equality principle. Today millions of Americans continue to honor the U.S. President Lincoln for his patriotism. He is highly recognized as an anti-slavery leader who was focused on the liberation of millions of Americans. Besides, he is known as a good moral leader. His ethical politics of a moral political leader depended on religious principles. Lincoln was often named as Father Lincoln. His nickname is closely connected with the Bible and biblical principles. In other words, Lincoln was called the father of the Nation as he gave freedom to Americans.Conclusion  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thus, it is necessary to conclude that Abraham Lincoln is a historical hero who contributed to the development of the American Nation. Abraham Lincoln can be viewed as the greatest president of the 19-th century who helped Americans to enhance the negative effects of the national crisis, guiding the country torn by war. Abraham Lincoln is considered to be one of the greatest national heroes due to his huge impact on the nation, the national values and his amazing appeal. Undoubtedly, the unexpected tragic death at the period of time when he held an important post and his country needed his talent to complete the greatest tasks of the nation, had a strong impact on the public. People did not want to stop their fighting for freedom. Actually, Abraham Lincoln’s personality and his historical role as the savior of the Union and as the emancipator of the slaves established a legacy that continues today. Besides, his expression of democratic principles, and his support for the Union embody the true ideals of self-government that pract ically all nations strive to obtain today. In general, Abraham Lincoln could win the Civil War, one of the bloodiest wars, which reflected the greatest political crisis of the nation. The preservation of the Union, abolition of slavery gave way to the strengthening of the national government and modernization of the U. S. economy.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

65 preguntas en entrevista residencia por matrimonio

65 preguntas en entrevista residencia por matrimonio La entrevista a los cà ³nyuges en el proceso de obtencià ³n de la residencia permanente por matrimonio es un paso que se realiza porque Inmigracià ³n quiere saber si un matrimonio es de conveniencia o si se trata de una unià ³n verdadera. Solamente en este à ºltimo caso el cà ³nyuge extranjero obtendrn definitivamente los papeles. Destacar que la entrevista para levantar la condicionalidad tiene lugar à ºnicamente en  el caso en el que el cà ³nyuge extranjero de un ciudadano americano obtuvo inicialmente una green card temporal por dos aà ±os. Esto solamente tiene lugar en los casos en los que el cà ³nyuge extranjero recibe la green card antes de haber cumplido los dos aà ±os de casado.  Es decir, no en todos los casos de residencia por matrimonio hay entrevista. Los casos en los que la green card por matrimonio es temporal y, por lo tanto, es imprescindible la entrevista como paso previo para levantar la condicionalidad de la residencia de dicho cà ³nyuge extranjero, lo comà ºn es que las preguntas se  hagan  por separado  a cada uno de los esposos.   Despuà ©s de leer este artà ­culo se tendr una idea informada de quà © preguntas esperar en la entrevista, consejos para la misma y cà ³mo evitar problemas y quà © hacer una vez que se realiza exitosamente.   El oficial de Inmigracià ³n puede preguntar lo que quiera, pero sus preguntas van a ser muy similares a las siguientes. 65 preguntas entrevista para residencia por matrimonio Las preguntas suelen referirse a varios temas: noviazgo y ceremonia de casamiento, la familia de cada uno de los cà ³nyuges y vida de casados. Por cuestiones prcticas de este artà ­culo, las preguntas se dividen en esos tres bloques. Estas preguntas aplican tanto a matrimonios entre un varà ³n y una mujer como al celebrado entre dos personas del mismo sexo, ya que las leyes federales de EE.UU. reconocen la legalidad del matrimonio igualitario y, por lo tanto, es posible derivar beneficios migratorios de dicho matrimonio. Noviazgo y boda  ¿Dà ³nde se conocieron? ¿En quà © momento pasaron de ser amigos a ser novios? ¿Quà © actividades hacà ­an en comà ºn cuando eran novios? ¿Quà © gustos y aficiones tienen en comà ºn? ¿Por quà © han tenido un noviazgo tan corto (o tan largo)? ¿Quià ©n decidià ³ que era una buena idea casarse? ¿Dà ³nde se celebrà ³ la boda? ¿A cunta gente invitaron? ¿Quià ©nes estaban presentes por parte de cada una de las familias?Describe la ceremonia y el banquete.  ¿Algo fuera de lo comà ºn? ¿Quà © se sirvià ³ para comer y para beber? ¿Cà ³mo se decidià ³ el menà º? ¿Quià ©n pagà ³ por el banquete? ¿Hasta que hora durà ³ la recepcià ³n? ¿Dà ³nde fue la luna de miel? ¿Por quà © decidieron ese destino? La vida en comà ºn  ¿Quià ©n de los dos se levanta generalmente antes? ¿A quà © hora? ¿Quià ©n hace el desayuno? ¿Quià ©n hace la comida y la cena? ¿Quià ©n hace la compra? ¿Quià ©n lava los platos? ¿Quià ©n plancha? ¿Dà ³nde se guarda la ropa de invierno? ¿Cul es la comida preferida de tu esposo/a? ¿Quà © comida detesta tu esposo/a? ¿Cuntas veces a la semana salen a comer fuera? ¿Cul fue la à ºltima pelà ­cula que vieron juntos? ¿De quà © color son las cortinas de cada cuarto de la casa? ¿Quà © electrodomà ©sticos hay en la cocina? ¿De quà © tamaà ±o es la cama matrimonial? ¿Tienen televisià ³n en el dormitorio? ¿Cà ³mo es el pijama preferido de tu esposo/a? ¿De quà © lado de la cama duermes? ¿Cul es la marca de crema, champà º, crema de dientes, etc que utiliza tu esposo/a?Si se utiliza algà ºn mà ©todo anti conceptivo,  ¿cul? ¿Cundo tuvo la esposa su à ºltima menstruacià ³n? ¿Cundo es el cumpleaà ±os de cada uno? ¿Quà © celebrac iones se festejan en la casa? ¿Quà © hicieron juntos en el à ºltimo dà ­a feriado? ¿Cul es el programa de televisià ³n favorito de tu esposo/a? ¿Cul es la estacià ³n de radio que prefiere escuchar tu esposo/a?  ¿Cul es la marca de la cmara de fotos? ¿Cuntos autos tienen? ¿Cuntos telà ©fonos de là ­nea fija hay en la casa? ¿Cul es el servicio de internet, cable? ¿Cuntas televisiones hay en la casa y en que cuarto se encuentran? ¿Quà © revistas leen o tienen suscripcià ³n? ¿Viven en una casa o apartamento? ¿Cunto se paga de renta o de hipoteca?Si hay mascotas,  ¿quià ©n las pasea y quià ©n las lleva al veterinario y cules son sus nombres? Familia  ¿Con quà © frecuencia visitan o se va a ver a la familia polà ­tica? ¿Cà ³mo te llevas con tus suegros? ¿Les has hecho regalos o te los han hecho? ¿Con quà © otros miembros de la familia se tiene relacià ³n frecuente? ¿Cundo fue la à ºltima vez que los viste?Si se tienen nià ±os,  ¿quià ©n los levanta? ¿Quià ©n les hace de comer la mayor parte de las veces? ¿Cul es su comida favorita? ¿Quià ©n los acuesta? ¿Cul es su cuento favorito? ¿Cul es su juguete favorito? ¿Van solos al retrete? ¿Utilizan asiento extra en el auto? ¿Quià ©n es la persona que los cuida cuando los padres estn fuera de la casa? Problemas que pueden surgir en la entrevista para la residencia Si Inmigracià ³n cree que se est ante un matrimonio falso para obtener la tarjeta de residencia, habr consecuencias serias por esa boda de conveniencia, si bien son ms problemticas y graves para el cà ³nyuge extranjero que se casà ³ por los papeles. Por otra parte, si un ciudadano llega a la conclusià ³n de que se han casado con à ©l o ella sà ³lo por los papeles, tiene dos opciones: denunciarlo  o, si es posible, cancelar la tramitacià ³n del permiso de residencia antes de que à ©sta sea definitiva. Adems, tener en cuenta que el divorcio cuando la residencia se obtiene por matrimonio puede tener efectos migratorios importantes, por lo que hay que analizar bien las posibles consecuencias, aà ºn cuando el divorcio se produzca despuà ©s de haber levantado la condicionalidad de la green card y, por lo tanto, haber obtenido la tarjeta de residencia permanente. Por à ºltimo, si  el matrimonio es abusivo y resulta muy dificultoso para el cà ³nyuge extranjero permanecer conviviendo con el esposo o esposa ciudadano porque todavà ­a no se ha levantado la condicionalidad de la green card, es  posible consultar con un abogado opciones migratorias, incluido  VAWA para và ­ctimas de violencia domà ©stica. Consejos para la entrevista y despuà ©s Si la entrevista tiene lugar en Estados Unidos y uno de los cà ³nyuges no habla bien inglà ©s, puede llevar a un intà ©rprete a las oficinas del USCIS. No se permite que el marido o la mujer que sà ­ habla inglà ©s traduzca para su cà ³nyuge en este tipo de situaciones.   Si todo va bien, como es realmente en la mayorà ­a de los casos, lo esposos de ciudadanos americanos deben saber que pueden obtener la ciudadanà ­a americana tras tres aà ±os de matrimonio. Es muy conveniente considerar la posibilidad de naturalizarse cuanto antes ya que hay importantes diferencias entre un ciudadano y un residente. De interà ©s para indocumentados que estn pensando en casarse Los migrantes indocumentados no siempre pueden legalizar su situacià ³n mediante una boda. Es muy conocer cules son las opciones en un  matrimonio con un ciudadano  y tener muy en cuenta que no hay opciones de ajustar estatus en los casos de  matrimonio con un residente. En estos casos lo ms aconsejable es consultar con un abogado migratorio antes de enviar papeles a Inmigracià ³n. Puntos clave Algunas residencias por matrimonio con ciudadano son condicionales La condicionalidad hay que levantarla a los dos aà ±os y dentro de plazoLa entrevista a los cà ³nyuges forma parte del trmite para levantar condicionalidadEl matrimonio de conveniencia para sacar los papeles es un fraude de leySi se levanta la condicionalidad, la green card se convierte en permanente Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Political Activism Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Political Activism - Assignment Example This will see the current policy of the Canada revenue agency (CRA) that relate to political activities conduct by registered charities remaining unchanged. The changes arising from the Budget 2012 should not be left to deter the registered charities from engaging in political activities. Charities should get involved or continue to participate in the political activities so long as they pursue the rules applicable. The charities should as well document all their political activities involvement. There have been allegations against environmental charities in their use of donations that are claimed to be received from foreign sources. A group of politicians specifically, has raised questions concerning the foreign funding appropriateness on environmental charities in Canada, whether the funds in question were useful in lobbying the government. For instance, of significance is the initiated Senate inquiry by Senator Nicole Eaton on February 2012, based upon the claims by the Senator th at such funding were influencing policy discussions improperly in the country. This was presumed with regards to government projects like the Northern Gateway pipeline. There was no credibility in such accusations in that, the charitable sector has quite a number of segments in Canada, and each year these segments receive a large scale funding from foreign sources. Such includes hospitals, universities and religious organizations, and the federal government has not made any allegations that the funding could be used in support of a political activity. Noting the strategy of counter terrorism by the federal government released on February 2012 is so crucial since it equated white supremacy environmentalism and terrorist activities in the city of Oklahoma in 1995 (Carter & Claridge, 54). As a result of this strategy and other kinds of attacks on environmental charities, the charities have created a force to enable them engage in political activities (Carter & Man, 47). However, the ab ility of charities to get involved in political activities has not been impacted by Budget2012, through the implementation of its legislation. Engaging in alternative community services could be more effective in addressing this issue. For instance, all registered charities are needed by law to have charitable purposes that are beneficial to a community such as poverty relief, promotion of advanced education and religion, and promoting of health care for the communities. The policy statement of the CRA on political activities, CPS-022, the activities by registered charities can be categorized into three as political activity, charitable activity or prohibited activity. An activity considered charitable is normally permitted without any limit. For example, communicating with public through a charity on the issue that relates to the purposes of the charity can be, under certain circumstances, be a charitable activity. However, the sort of communication has to satisfy the following req uirements: 1. Relate to and subordinate to the charitable purposes of the charity. 2. Reasoned well. 3. Does not contain inaccurate, false, or misleading information. Involving in charitable activities in a political platform

Thursday, October 31, 2019

The Dance Theatre of Harlem Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Dance Theatre of Harlem - Essay Example In stark contrast you find Return of the Firebird. The somewhat docile mood that is set in this ballet seems to reign supreme throughout the performance. The main drawback being a total lack of enthusiasm by the performers who seem to be actually controlled by the strings of a puppet master rather than their own minds. This garnered a bored feeling as the ballet wore on, seeming to last a lifetime although it was short by many standards. The movements are thoughtful and full of grace, even past the less then perfect planning. One finds themselves staring at the wonderful fluid movements as passion is arisen in the dancer. The supporting members do little to help this master of the dance, but little help is needed. Fall River Legend more than makes up for the loss in Return of the Firebird. The greatly talented staffs of dancers move as one, making the watcher think of a graceful flock of birds evading a predator. The content of these two ballets is no match. The main point of Return of the Firebird seems to be the same old tired love story, terribly overdone in all forms of theatre. When you consider the dark theme that Fall River Legend brings out, you find yourself in a place that few people have gone with the arts. Drawing from the historical data that is available, the writers were able to portray the event

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Critically Evaluate One Approach to Organisational Culture Change Essay

Critically Evaluate One Approach to Organisational Culture Change - Essay Example ) is one of the major telecom equipment and networking distributors in Russia, started two informational search system called ‘Goods and Services Classifier’ and ‘International Classifier of Inventions’ and these two systems was the foundation for the development of Yandex’s technology. Later, in 1993, Yandex was developed as a Russian language search mechanism by CompTek (Yandex-a, 2011). Finally, in 1997, website was launched. Gradually, the Russian search engine, started bringing new developments and advanced services backed with innovative technologies. During 2000, it started running commercial advertisements through its search engine websites sites which turn to be a major source of sales revenues for the company. Currently, Yandex has become a major search engine for Russian speaking people. After the tremendous response from the domestic market, the company also decided to expand its market internationally. Hence, it starte d its new division in California, known as, ‘Yandex Labs’ and Vish Makhijani, the former executive of Yahoo is head of this division with the responsibility of business development in American market. Yandex’s organisational goal revolves around its core operational activities and its mission i.e. to offer high quality services to its customers. In order to meet this objective, Yandex aims to develop an innovative workplace which leads to enhance the labour productivity. In this process, self-management, goal sharing and loyalty form employees’ end are vital criteria. Company Analysis of Yandex In order to indentify Yandex’s internal strengths and weaknesses, internal analysis of the company is very necessary. Yandex is internet solutions and search engine provider in Russia and other international... This paper deals with a case study of Yandex which is a popular and leading search engine provider. Yandex is a Russia-based company and provides internet and other related services. During 1990, the Arcadia Inc is one of the major telecom equipment and networking distributors in Russia, started two informational search system called ‘Goods and Services Classifier’ and ‘International Classifier of Inventions’ and these two systems was the foundation for the development of Yandex’s technology. This paper has focused on the organisation development intervention for the Yandex, a popular Russian search engine providing company. Technology is the base of the company’s strategic framework, organisation and corporate culture. In order to develop a growth oriented organisation, the company focuses on employees’ freedom for motivating and for encouraging their mind to think innovative ideas. However, for incorporating better changes in organisation development, Yandex must needs to follow a comprehensive OD intervention strategy. In this process, it can follow the model given in figure 3 for bringing positives changes in its organisation culture. However, at first, it must identify and determine key objectives. The objectives for Yandex must include improvements of services by increasing the organisational performances and enhancement of customer satisfaction. In order to achieve these objectives, Yandex must follow a set of guiding principles. In other terms, these principles are the tools for incorporating changes.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Automatic Encoding Detection And Unicode Conversion Engine Computer Science Essay

Automatic Encoding Detection And Unicode Conversion Engine Computer Science Essay In computers, characters are represented using numbers. Initially the encoding schemes were designed to support the English alphabet, which has a limited number of symbols. Later the requirement for a worldwide character encoding scheme to support multi lingual computing was identified. The solution was to come up with a 16 encoding scheme to represent a character so that it can support up to large character set. The current Unicode version contains 107,000 characters covering 90 scripts. In the current context operating systems such as Windows 7, UNIX based operating systems applications such as word processors and data exchange technologies do support this standard enabling internationalization in the IT industry. Even though this standard has been the de facto standard, still there can be seen certain applications using proprietary encoding schemes to represent the data. As an example, famous Sinhala news sites still do not adapt Unicode standard based fonts to represent the conte nt. This causes issues such as the requirement of downloading proprietary fonts, browser dependencies making the efforts of Unicode standard in vain. In addition to the web site content itself there are collections of information included in documents such as PDFs in non Unicode fonts making it difficult to search through search engines unless the search term is entered in that particular font encoding. This has given the requirement of automatically detecting the encoding and transforming into the Unicode encoding in the corresponding language, so that it avoids the problems mentioned. In case of web sites, a browser plug-in implementation to support the automatic non-Unicode to Unicode conversion would eliminate the requirement of downloading legacy fonts, which uses proprietary character encodings. Although some web sites provide the source font information, there are certain web applications, which do not give this information, making the auto detection process more difficult. Hence it is required to detect the encoding first, before it has been fed to the transformation process. This has given the rise to a research area of auto detecting the language encoding for a given text based on language characteristics. This problem will be addressed based on a statistical language encoding detection mechanism. The technique would be demonstrated with the support for all the Sinhala Non Unicode encodings. The implementation for the demonstration will make sure that it is an extendible solution for other languages making it support for any given language based on a future requirement. Since the beginning of the computer age, many encoding schemes have been created to represent various writing scripts/characters for computerized data. With the advent of globalization and the development of the Internet, information exchanges crossing both language and regional boundaries are becoming ever more important. However, the existence of multiple coding schemes presents a significant barrier. The Unicode has provided a universal coding scheme, but it has not so far replaced existing regional coding schemes for a variety of reasons. Thus, todays global software applications are required to handle multiple encodings in addition to supporting Unicode. In computers, characters are encoded as numbers. A typeface is the scheme of letterforms and the font is the computer file or program which physically embodies the typeface. Legacy fonts use different encoding systems for assigning the numbers for characters. This leads to the fact that two legacy font encodings defining different numbers for the same character. This may lead to conflicts with how the characters are encoded in different systems and will require maintaining multiple encoding fonts. The requirement of having a standard to unique character identification was satisfied with the introduction of Unicode. Unicode enables a single software product or a single website to be targeted across multiple platforms, languages and countries without re-engineering. Unicode Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation and handling of text expressed in most of the worlds writing systems. The latest Unicode has more than 107,000 characters covering 90 scripts, which consists of a set of code charts. The Unicode Consortium co-ordinates Unicodes development and the goal is to eventually replace existing character encoding schemes with Unicode and its standard Unicode Transformation Format (UTF) schemes. This standard is being supported in many recent technologies including Programming Languages and modern operating systems. All W3C recommendations have used Unicode as their document character set since HTML 4.0. Web browsers have supported Unicode, especially UTF-8, for many years [4], [5]. Sinhala Legacy Font Conversion Requirement for Web Content Sinhala language usage in computer technology has been present since 1980s but the lack of standards in character representation system resulted in proprietary fonts. Sinhala was added to Unicode in 1998 with the intention of overcoming the limitations in proprietary character encodings. Dinamina, DinaminaUniWeb, Iskoola Pota, KandyUnicode, KaputaUnicode, Malithi Web, Potha are some Sinhala Unicode fonts which were developed so that the numbers assigned with the characters are the same. Still some major news sites which display Sinhala character contents have not adapted the Unicode standards. The Legacy Fonts encoding schemes are used instead causing the conflicts in content representation. In order to minimize the problems, font families were created where the shape of characters only differs but the encoding remains the same. FM Font Family, DL Font Family are some examples where a font family concept is used as a grouping of Sinhala fonts with similar encodings [1], [2]. Adaptation of non Unicode encodings causes a lot of compatibility issues when viewed in different browsers and operating systems. Operating systems such as Windows Vista, Windows7 come with Sinhala Unicode support and do not require external fonts to be installed to read Sinhalese script. Variations of GNU/Linux distributions such as Dabian or Ubuntu also provide Sinhala Unicode support. Enabling non Unicode applications especially web contents with the support for Unicode fonts will allow the users to view contents without installing the legacy fonts. Non Unicode PDF Documents In addition to the contents in the web, there exists a whole lot of government documents which are in PDF format but their contents are encoded with legacy fonts. Those documents would not be searchable through search engines by entering the search terms in Unicode. In order to overcome the problem it is important to convert such documents in to a Unicode font so that they are searchable and its data can be used by other applications consistently, irrespective of the font. As another part of the project this problem would be addressed through a converter tool, which creates the Unicode version of existing PDF document which are currently in legacy font. The Problem Sections 1.3, 1.4 describe two domains in which the Non Unicode to Unicode conversion is required. The conversion involves identification of non-Unicode contents and replacing it with the corresponding Unicode contents. The content replacement requires a Mapping engine, which would do the proper segmentation of the input text and map it with the corresponding Unicode code. The mapping engine can perform the mapping task only if it knows what is the source text encoding. In general, the encoding is specified along with the content so that the mapping engine could feed it directly. However, in certain cases the encoding is not specified along with the content. Hence detecting the encoding through an encoding the detection engine provides a research area, especially with the non-Unicode content. In addition to that, incorporating the detection engine along with a conversion engine would be another part of the problem, to solve the application areas in 1.3, 1.4. Project Scope The system will be initially targeted for Sinhala fonts used by local sites. Later the same mechanism will be extended to support other languages and scripts (Tamil, Devanagaree). Deliverables and outcomes Web Service/Plug-in to Local Language web site Font Conversion which automatically converts website contents from legacy fonts to Unicode. PDF document conversion tool to convert legacy fonts to Unicode In both implementations, the language encoding detection would use the proposed encoding detection mechanism. It can be considered as the core for the implementations in addition to the translation engine which performs the Non Unicode to Unicode mapping. Literature Review Character Encodings Character Encoding Schemes Encoding refers to the process of representing information in some form. Human language is an encoding system by which information is represented in terms of sequences of lexical units, and those in terms of sound or gesture sequences. Written language is a derivative system of encoding by which those sequences of lexical units, sounds or gestures are represented in terms of the graphical symbols that make up some writing system. A character encoding is an algorithm for presenting characters in digital form as sequences of octets. There are hundreds of encodings, and many of them have different names. There is a standardized procedure for registering an encoding. A primary name is assigned to an encoding, and possibly some alias names. For example, ASCII, US-ASCII, ANSI_X3.4-1986, and ISO646-US are different names for an encoding. There are also many unregistered encodings and names that are used widely. The character encoding names are not case sensitive and hence ASCII and Ascii are equivalent [25]. Figure 2.1 Character encoding Example Single Octet Encodings When character repertoire that contains at most 256 characters, assigning a number in the range 0255 to each character and use an octet with that value to represent that character is the most simplest and obvious way. Such encodings, called single-octet or 8-bit encodings, are widely used and will remain important [22]. Multi-Octet Encodings In multi octet encodings more than one octet is used to represent a single character. A simple two-octet encoding is sufficient for a character repertoire that contains at most 65,536 characters. Two octet schemes are uneconomical if the text mostly consists of characters that could be presented in a single-octet encoding. On the other hand, the objective of supporting Universal character set is not achievable with just 65,536 unique codes. Thus, encodings that use a variable number of octets per character are more common. The most widely used among such encodings is UTF-8 (UTF stands for Unicode Transformation Format), which uses one to four octets per character. Principles of Unicode Standard Unicode has used as the universal encoding standard to encode characters in all living languages. To the end, is follows a set of fundamental principles. The Unicode standard is simple and consistent. It does not depend on states or modes for encoding special characters. The Unicode standard incorporates the character sets of many existing standards: For example, it includes Latin-I, character set as its first 256 characters. It includes repertoire of characters from numerous other corporate, national and international standards as well. In modern businesses needs handle characters from a wide variety of languages at the same time. With Unicode, a single internationalization process can produce code that handles the requirements of all the world markets at the same time. The data corruption problems do not occur since Unicode has a single definition for each character. Since it handles the characters for all the world markets in a uniform way, it avoids the complexities of different character code architectures. All of the modern operating systems, from PCs to mainframes, support Unicode now, or are actively developing support for it. The same is true of databases, as well.There are 10 design principles associated with Unicode. Universility The Unicode is designed to be Universal. The repertoire must be large enough to encompass all characters that are likely to be used in general text interchange. Unicode needs to encompass a variety of essentially different collections of characters and writing systems. For example, it cannot postulate that all text is written left to right, or that all letters have uppercase and lowercase forms, or that text can be divided into words separated by spaces or other whitespace. Efficient Software does not have to maintain state or look for special escape sequences, and character synchronization from any point in a character stream is quick and unambiguous. A fixed character code allows for efficient sorting, searching, display, and editing of text. But with Unicode efficiency there exist certain tradeoffs made specially with the storage requirements needing four octets for each character. Certain representation forms such as UTF-8 format requiring linear processing of the data stream in order to identify characters. Unicode contains a large amount of characters and features that have been included only for compatibility with other standards. This may require preprocessing that deals with compatibility characters and with different Unicode representations of the same character (e.g., letter à © as a single character or as two characters). Characters, not glyphs Unicode assigns code points to characters as abstractions, not to visual appearances. A character in Unicode represents an abstract concept rather than the manifestation as a particular form or glyph. As shown in Figure 2.2, the glyphs of many fonts that render the Latin character A all correspond to the same abstract character a. Figure 2.2: Abstract Latin Letter a and Style Variants Another example is the Arabic presentation form. An Arabic character may be written in up to four different shapes. Figure 2.3 shows an Arabic character written in its isolated form, and at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of a word. According to the design principle of encoding abstract characters, these presentation variants are all represented by one Unicode character. Figure 2.3: Arabic character with four representations The relationship between characters and glyphs is rather simple for languages like English: mostly each character is presented by one glyph, taken from a font that has been chosen. For other languages, the relationship can be much more complex routinely combining several characters into one glyph. Semantics Characters have well-defined meanings. When the Unicode standard refers to semantics, it often means the properties of characters, such spacing, combinability, and directionality, rather than what the character really means. Plain text Unicode deals with plain texti.e., strings of characters without formatting or structuring information (except for things like line breaks). Logical order The default representation of Unicode data uses logical order of data, as opposed to approaches that handle writing direction by changing the order of characters. Unification The principle of uniqueness was also applied to decide that certain characters should not be encoded separately. Unicode encodes duplicates of a character as a single code point, if they belong to the same script but different languages. For example, the letter à ¼ denoting a particular vowel in German is treated as the same as the letter à ¼ in Spanish. The Unicode standard uses Han unification to consolidate Chinese, Korean, and Japanese ideographs. Han unification is the process of assigning the same code point to characters historically perceived as being the same character but represented as unique in more than one East Asian ideographic character standard. These results in a group of ideographs shared by several cultures and significantly reduces the number of code points needed to encode them. The Unicode Consortium chose to represent shared ideographs only once because the goal of the Unicode standard was to encode characters independent of the languages that use them. Unicode makes no distinctions based on pronunciation or meaning; higher-level operating systems and applications must take that responsibility. Through Han unification, Unicode assigned about 21,000 code points to ideographic characters instead of the 120,000 that would be required if the Asian languages were treated separately. It is true that the same charact er might look slightly different in Chinese than in Japanese, but that difference in appearance is a font issue, not a uniqueness issue. Figure 2.4: Han Unification example The Unicode standard allows for character composition in creating marked characters. It encodes each character and diacritic or vowel mark separately, and allows the characters to be combined to create a marked character. It provides single codes for marked characters when necessary to comply with preexisting character standard. Dynamic composition Characters with diacritic marks can be composed dynamically, using characters designated as combining marks. Equivalent sequences Unicode has a large number of characters that are precomposed forms, such as à ©. They have decompositions that are declared as equivalent to the precomposed form. An application may still treat the precomposed form and the decomposition differently, since as strings of encoded characters, they are distinct. Convertibility Character data can be accurately converted between Unicode and other character standards and specifications. South Asian Scripts The scripts of South Asia share so many common features that a side-by-side comparison of a few will often reveal structural similarities even in the modern letterforms. With minor historical exceptions, they are written from left to right. They are all abugidas in which most symbols stand for a consonant plus an inherent vowel (usually the sound /a/). Word-initial vowels in many of these scripts have distinct symbols, and word-internal vowels are usually written by juxtaposing a vowel sign in the vicinity of the affected consonant. Absence of the inherent vowel, when that occurs, is frequently marked with a special sign [17]. Another designation is preferred in some languages. As an example in Hindi, the word hal refers to the character itself, and halant refers to the consonant that has its inherent vowel suppressed. The virama sign nominally serves to suppress the inherent vowel of the consonant to which it is applied; it is a combining character, with its shape varying from script to script. Most of the scripts of South Asia, from north of the Himalayas to Sri Lanka in the south, from Pakistan in the west to the easternmost islands of Indonesia, are derived from the ancient Brahmi script. The oldest lengthy inscriptions of India, the edicts of Ashoka from the third century BCE, were written in two scripts, Kharoshthi and Brahmi. These are both ultimately of Semitic origin, probably deriving from Aramaic, which was an important administrative language of the Middle East at that time. Kharoshthi, written from right to left, was supplanted by Brahmi and its derivatives. The descendants of Brahmi spread with myriad changes throughout the subcontinent and outlying islands. There are said to be some 200 different scripts deriving from it. By the eleventh century, the modern script known as Devanagari was in ascendancy in India proper as the major script of Sanskrit literature. The North Indian branch of scripts was, like Brahmi itself, chiefly used to write Indo-European languages such as Pali and Sanskrit, and eventually the Hindi, Bengali, and Gujarati languages, though it was also the source for scripts for non-Indo-European languages such as Tibetan, Mongolian, and Lepcha. The South Indian scripts are also derived from Brahmi and, therefore, share many structural characteristics. These scripts were first used to write Pali and Sanskrit but were later adapted for use in writing non-Indo-European languages including Dravidian family of southern India and Sri Lanka. Sinhala Language Characteristics of Sinhala The Sinhala script, also known as Sinhalese, is used to write the Sinhala language, by the majority language of Sri Lanka. It is also used to write the Pali and Sanskrit languages. The script is a descendant of Brahmi and resembles the scripts of South India in form and structure. Sinhala differs from other languages of the region in that it has a series of prenasalized stops that are distinguished from the combination of a nasal followed by a stop. In other words, both forms occur and are written differently [23]. Figure 2.5: Example for prenasalized stop in Sinhala In addition, Sinhala has separate distinct signs for both a short and a long low front vowel sounding similar to the initial vowel of the English word apple, usually represented in IPA as U+00E6 à ¦ latin small letter ae (ash). The independent forms of these vowels are encoded at U+0D87 and U+0D88. Because of these extra letters, the encoding for Sinhala does not precisely follow the pattern established for the other Indic scripts (for example, Devanagari). It does use the same general structure, making use of phonetic order, matra reordering, and use of the virama (U+0DCA sinhala sign al-lakuna) to indicate conjunct consonant clusters. Sinhala does not use half-forms in the Devanagari manner, but does use many ligatures. Sinhala Writing System The Sinhala writing system can be called an abugida, as each consonant has an inherent vowel (/a/), which can be changed with the different vowel signs. Thus, for example, the basic form of the letter k is à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡ ka. For ki, a small arch is placed over the à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡: à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢. This replaces the inherent /a/ by /i/. It is also possible to have no vowel following a consonant. In order to produce such a pure consonant, a special marker, the hal kirÄ «ma has to be added: à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…   . This marker suppresses the inherent vowel. Figure 2.6: Character associative Symbols in Sinhala Historical Symbols. Neither U+0DF4 sinhala punctuation kunddaliya nor the Sinhala numerals are in general use today, having been replaced by Western-style punctuation and Western digits. The kunddaliya was formerly used as a full stop or period. It is included for scholarly use. The Sinhala numerals are not presently encoded. Sinhala and Unicode In 1997, Sri Lanka submitted a proposal for the Sinhala character code at the Unicode working group meeting in Crete, Greece. This proposal competed with proposals from UK, Ireland and the USA. The Sri Lankan draft was finally accepted with slight modifications. This was ratified at the 1998 meeting of the working group held at Seattle, USA and the Sinhala Code Chart was included in Unicode Version 3.0 [2]. It has been suggested by the Unicode consortium that ZWJ and ZWNJ should be introduced in Orthographic languages like Sinhala to achieve the following: 1. ZWJ joins two or more consonants to form a single unit (conjunct consonants). 2. ZWJ can also alter shape of preceding consonants (cursiveness of the consonant). 3. ZWNJ can be used to disjoin a single ligature into two or more units. Encoding auto Detection Browser and auto-detection In designing auto detection algorithms to auto detect encodings in web pages it needs to depend on the following assumptions on input data [24]. Input text is composed of words/sentences readable to readers of a particular language. Input text is from typical web pages on the Internet which is not an ancient dead language. The input text may contain extraneous noises which have no relation to its encoding, e.g. HTML tags, non-native words (e.g. English words in Chinese documents), space and other format/control characters. Methods of auto detection The paper[24] discusses about 3 different methods for detecting the encoding of text data. Coding Scheme Method In any of the multi-byte encoding coding schemes, not all possible code points are used. If an illegal byte or byte sequence (i.e. unused code point) is encountered when verifying a certain encoding, it is possible to immediately conclude that this is not the right guess. Efficient algorithm to detecting character set using coding scheme through a parallel state machine is discussed in the paper [24]. For each coding scheme, a state machine is implemented to verify a byte sequence for this particular encoding. For each byte the detector receives, it will feed that byte to every active state machine available, one byte at a time. The state machine changes its state based on its previous state and the byte it receives. In a typical example, one state machine will eventually provide a positive answer and all others will provide a negative answer. Character Distribution Method In any given language, some characters are used more often than other characters. This fact can be used to devise a data model for each language script. This is particularly useful for languages with a large number of characters such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean. The tests were carried out with the data for simplified Chinese encoded in GB2312, traditional Chinese encoded in Big, Japanese and Korean. It was observed that a rather small set of coding points covers a significant percentage of characters used. Parameter called Distribution Ration was defined and used for the purpose separating the two encodings. Distribution Ratio = the Number of occurrences of the 512 most frequently used characters divided by the Number of occurrences of the rest of the characters. . Two-Char Sequence Distribution Method In languages that only use a small number of characters, we need to go further than counting the occurrences of each single character. Combination of characters reveals more language-characteristic information. 2-Char Sequence as 2 characters appearing immediately one after another in input text, and the order is significant in this case. Just as not all characters are used equally frequently in a language, 2-Char Sequence distribution also turns out to be extremely language/encoding dependent. Current Approaches to Solve Encoding Problems Siyabas Script The SiyabasScript is as an attempt to develop a browser plugin, which solves the problem using legacy font in Sinhala news sites [6]. It is an extension to Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome web browsers. This solution was specifically designed for a limited number of target web sites, which were having the specific fonts. The solution had the limitation of having to reengineer the plug-in, if a new version of the browser is released. The solution was not global since that id did not have the ability to support a new site which is using a Sinhala legacy font. In order to overcome that, the proposed solution will identify the font and encodings based on the content but not on site. There is a chance that the solution might not work if the site decided to adapt another legacy font, as it cannot detect the encoding scheme changes. There is a significant delay in the conversion process. The user would notice the display of the content with characters which are in legacy font before they g et converted to the Unicode. This performance delay can be also identified as an area to improve in the solution. The conversion process does not provide the exact conversion specially when the characters need to be combined in Unicode. à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ´Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ = à  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¯Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ º à  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  .à  Ã‚ ¶Ã¢â‚¬â„¢.à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ´Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬Å". à  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¸Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ » à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¸Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ­Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ , à  Ã‚ ¶Ã…“à  Ã‚ ·Ã‹Å"à  Ã‚ ·Ã‹Å"à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ´Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…   à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ´Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ­Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…   à  Ã‚ ¶Ã¢â‚¬ ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ©Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‹Å"à  Ã‚ ·Ã‹Å" à  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã†â€™Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ »Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ º, à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡ à  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ »Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…   , à  Ã‚ ¶Ã¢â‚¬ ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã†â€™Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ »Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ½Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ºÃƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬  , à  Ã‚ ¶Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ +à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ »Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ºÃƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…   à  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ± à  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬Å"à  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ » ,à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬Å"à  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ »Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ©Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã…“à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ «Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ºÃƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¯Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬Å" ,à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¯`à  Ã‚ ¶Ã…“ à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ´Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¯Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬  à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ºÃƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…   can be mentioned as the examples of words of such conversion issues. The plug-in supports the Sinhala Unicode conversion for the sites, and But the other websites mentioned in the paper does not get properly converted to Sinhala with Firefox version 3.5.17. Aksharamukha Asian Script Converter Aksharamukha is a South: South-East-Asian script convertor tool. It supports transliteration between Brahmi derived Asian scripts. It also has the functionality to transliterate web pages from Indic Scripts to other scripts. The Convertor scrapes the HTML page, then transliterates the Indic Scripts and displays the HTML. There are certain issues in the tool when it comes to alignment with the original web page. Misalignments and missing images, unconverted hyperlinks are some of them. Figure 2.7: Aksharamukha Asian Script Converter Corpus-based Sinhala Lexicon The Lexicon of a language is its vocabulary including higher order constructs such as words and expressions. In order to detect the encoding of a given text this can be used as a supporting tool. Corpus based Sinhala lexicon has nearly 35000 entries based on a corpus consisting of 10 million words from diverse genres such as technical writing, creative writing and news reportage [7], [9]. The text distribution across genres is given in table 1. Table 2.1: Distribution of Words across Genres [7] Genre Number of words Percentage of words Creative Writing 2340999 23% Technical Writing 4357680 43% News Reportage 3433772 34% N-gram-based language, script, and encoding scheme-detection N-Gram refers to N character sequences and is used as a well-established technique used in classifying language of text documents. The method detects language, script, and encoding schemes using a target text document encoded by computer by checking how many byte sequences of the target match the byte sequences that can appear in the texts belonging to a language, script, and encoding scheme. N-grams are extracted from a string, or a document, by a sliding window that shifts one character at a time. Sinhala Enabled Mobile Browser for J2ME Phones Mobile phone usage is rapidly increasing throughout the world as well as in Sri Lanka. It has become the most ubiquitous communication device. Accessing internet through the mobile phone has become a common activity of people especially for messaging and news items. In J2ME enabled phones Sinhala Unicode support yet to be developed. They do not allow installation of fonts outside. Hence those devices will not be able to display Unicode contents, especially on the web, until Unicode is supported by the platform. Integrating the Unicode viewing support will provide a good opportunity to carry the technology to remote areas if it can be presented in the native language. If this is facilitated, in addition to the urban crowd, people from rural areas will be able to subscribe to a daily newspaper with their mobile. One major advantage of such an application is that it will provide a phone model independent solution which supports any Java enabled phone. Cillion is a Mini browser software which shows Unicode contents in J2ME phones. This software is an application developed with the fonts integrated wh