Saturday, May 23, 2020

Science and Religion Essay - 1443 Words

Science and religion have always collided. Science is based on observation and what we can prove. Religion on the other hand makes arguments analytical in nature and requires faith. The basis though may not seem similar. A scientist might call this as the order in the universe or the Energy, which is transmitted in the world we live in. Religions like to look this ultimate reality as God. This entity is capable of setting an order in the universe and is nothing but what religion defines as God. Science and Religion then appear to be tied up like two versions of the same subject. What major affects does science have on religion in the past two centuries? From Isaac Newton, who discovered gravity, Thomas Edison who invented to light†¦show more content†¦All these affect religion and who believes it and to what extent we as people actually believe. In today’s society people want to be able to grasp, to hold it, and even just feel it. So how do some people believe in God, we are not able to see him, hold him, let alone hear him? So how can we actually believe in something that is not there? Now you see this is how science draws us away from our beliefs. Science says that, â€Å"seeing is believing.† Meaning that if u can see something then you can believe in it. We are not able to see him. But his existence could be debated using knowledge based on what we see around us. For instance when we throw coins on a table, these coins will stop and arrange themselves on the table. What made the coins be in the order we see them after they hav e been thrown? Maybe it was the cause of Newton’s Laws. But then again this order as proposed by Science implies an order setter. Is this God, a human like, yet unseen being? Are his features well defined? How do we describe the qualities of such a being? If He is perfect, his features are the highest level of moral standards, then we can say that him and is followers are beyond our understanding. We might say that he is wise, he knows all, and he is merciful and powerful. But these just limits how we express things not described by our won language. It is possible we might not haveShow MoreRelatedRelationship Between Science And Religion Essay2131 Words   |  9 PagesThe relationship between science and religion as Western categories of thought has long been fraught with tension; academics suggest that the conflict between religion and science arose in the 17th century, as a result of the Galileo Affair, and continued into the 18th century Age of Enlightenment. Others, h owever, suggest that the dispute between the two systems of belief may even be traced as far back as classical antiquity. Even today, it is clear that tensions endure between academics unableRead MoreReligion and Science Need Each Other935 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.† This famous quote was spoken by a man even more famous for his scientific works in the fields of physics and mathematics. Albert Einstein, famous scientist, is found here stating that without religion science is, essentially, useless. Surely it is impossible for a man so accomplished in the scientific field to seriously consider the possibility of God? Certainly, we live in a time where there has been much condemnation and ridiculeRead MoreLife of Pi: the Correlation Between Science and Religion Essay1582 Words   |  7 PagesMs. Ciufo ENG-3U1 Wednesday, April, 28, 2010 Life of Pi: Correlation between Science and Religion One of the most important dichotomies that exist amongst today is Science versus Religion. A dichotomy that started in the renaissance era, a period when people started questioning, looking to other horizons, other than religion and truly began to comprehend reality. The theme of Science versus Religion is portrayed in a great deal in the novel Life of Pi. In Life of Pi, Yann Martle utilizesRead MoreReligion : Science And Religion1273 Words   |  6 PagesScience and religion were based back in modern days to be the answer to everyone, and society as a whole to handle their issues through the church majority of the time, until science came along and changed the perspective of everyone’s outlook on how they were to solve their conflicts. Within the world today they both still exist and are still being put to use for its main purpose which is to create answers to things we face that need a solution. I believe Religion started inRead MoreScience And Religion755 Words   |  4 PagesAre science and religion related? If so, how are they related? What is the importance of them in human lives? I believe, science and religion are related to each other. The relationship between them has been debated for several years. Science is linked to the material, while religion is worried about spirituality (Vikas, 2012). Humans depend on both religion and science not one or the other. In spite of being different from each other, science and religion are related and linked to each other. ScienceRead MoreQuestions On Religion Of Science925 Words   |  4 PagesCONCLUSION Religion of Science Ernest Holmes asks us to consider three general classifications of knowledge: 1. Science: â€Å"†¦ the organized knowledge of natural law and its application to life.† 2. Philosophy: â€Å"†¦ the opinions one holds about the world, life, and reality.† 3. Religion: â€Å"†¦ any man’s belief about his relationship to the invisible universe.† â€Å"We might speak of a pure religious science as we would speak of a pure natural science, which means the study of natural causes. We might speakRead MoreThe Between Religion And Science810 Words   |  4 PagesAll that I have ever known and believed in is now being questioned. It is transitioning into some sort of enormous trial – between religion and science. I have been taught to accept the religious, social, and political ideas that the Catholic Church has devised upon the world. For years, humans have believed and used Aristotle’s theory which explained Earth’s position in the universe. By the geocentric theory, Earth was said to be located at the center of the universe. The moon, the sun, and theRead MoreInfluence Of Science And Religion1564 Words   |  7 Pages1. Q) Compare and contrast the influence of science and religion in the development of humanity. Discuss both the positive and the negative. A) The systematic testing of observations, and the belief of something larger than ourselves, have been part of the human experience since time began. Both science and religion have influenced human thought and civilization. When a question could not be answered by time and observation, people fell back on spiritual explanationsRead MoreScience and Religion Essays808 Words   |  4 PagesScience and religion have always been in conflict with one another because they each represent complete opposite ideals, science is about how nature controls how the universe works and religion is about how God controls how the universe works. In the five models on science and religion I believe that Conflict best describes the relationship between the two. Conflict tells how either science is completely right and religion is wrong or the other way around and that religion and science are completelyRead MoreEvolution Of Science And Religion1179 Words   |  5 PagesWhen comparing science and reli gion there has been a great rift. As long as humanity has believed in a creator there as always been thinkers trying to quantify and evaluate the truth behind religion, trying to disprove or prove a supernatural force. The ancient Greeks were pioneering philosophers which started the great rift we see in the early development of scientific and quantified analysis. This was first started by Aristotle whuch believed that science was a process of trying to understand

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Savagery in Lord of the Flies and City of God Essay

Evil in the world is represented by savageness, ignorance, and animal instincts, in contrast to the good influences of a mindful civilization. People created civilized society, but savageness will always exist, because it is part of human nature. Far from the decent communities, savageness always works to overcome good. William Golding and Fernando Meirelles present these ideas in their works, the novel Lord of the Flies and the film City of God. They tell the stories of two places with no rational legal authorities, where savageness is way of life. In these stories, Piggy and Rocket are similar in that they become outsiders in their communities because of their mindfulness†¦show more content†¦This is the main reason that Piggy is an outsider in his community of children. His cultivated and intelligent mind does not fit in the savagery and primal instincts ruling the life of the boys in the desert island. The first signs of Piggys isolation can be observed in the first chapter of the novel. Piggy cannot stop talking about the airplane crash, his aunty, his social problems at school, and about the things that need to be done: We got to find the others. We got to do something (14). These are all reasonable commentaries that a rational person would emit. The other boy, Ralph however, considers this to be annoying so, ignoring Piggys ill-omened talk, he dreamed pleasantly (15). Piggy cannot see this, because his intelligent mind cannot understand that kind of ignorance. He continues his fight against the savageness on the island, looking for a way to put some order in it, while at the same time insolating himself from the group. Piggy becomes a prominent figure in establishing the two main symbols of civilization and order on the island. First he finds the conch, and immediately puts it to use: We can use this to call the others. Have a meeting (16). The conch becomes a symbol of power and order, because the boys use it to call meetings. Moreover, the one who holds the conch has the right to speak and to be heard. The second symbol of civilization is the signal fire that the boys created in orderShow MoreRelatedBook Review of William Goldings Lord of the Flies2866 Words   |  11 Pagesï » ¿ Lord of the Flies Human Nature in the Middle East Introduction There are many pertinent and legitimate questions that can be raised involving human nature, William Goldings iconic novel Lord of the Flies, and the Middle Eastern society of today. This paper addresses those issues and concepts in light of what is happening in the Middle East today and also from the big picture of the Muslim community in the Middle East. Is it in fact fair to portray human nature (that is shown through LordRead MoreEssay about Edgar Derby and Simon: Life, Beliefs, and Death1586 Words   |  7 PagesThe lives, deaths, situations, and beliefs of Edgar Derby, from the novel, Slaughterhouse-five by Kurt Vonnegut, and Simon, from the novel, The Lord of the Flies by William Golding, are equally alike and unalike. Even though these characters are from different books, they represent the absurdity of death and the importance of speaking up for what you believe. Both of these characters live in hostile and confining environments, attempt to deliver a vital message, and are unfairly killed. Edgar DerbyRead MoreLord Of The Flies Reflection Essay1793 Words   |  8 PagesLord of the Flies deals with plenty of ideas and lessons which amaze us. This state the human conditions, end of civilization, darkness of human mind, violence, destruction of human civilization and end of positive values among children. Through the British boys William Golding discussed the failed human culture created by man. They depended on bad rules and barbarism which lead them towards destruction. It signifies that in childhood any bad experience can directly change the mind and action ofRead MoreEvil a Learned Behavior6329 Words   |  26 PagesGermany to the guerilla wars in Vietnam and Cambodia and presently to the devastating conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sudan. Evil is a learned behavior which is illustrated in dictators, school violence, and classical novels such as Lord of the Flies by William Golding and Night by Elie Wiesel. Humans are fundamentally good, and then are corrupted by their environment. Its because of evolutionary purposes. Every organism wants their species to continue (if they dont, they die off andRead MoreReview Of Charlotte Bronte s Jane Eyre 10879 Words   |  44 Pagesthink wrong! — I have as much soul as you — and full as much heart! And if God had gifted me with some beauty and much wealth, I should have made it as hard for you to leave me, as it is now for me to leave you. I am not talking to you now through the medium of custom, conventionalities, nor even of mortal flesh: it is my spirit that addresses your spirit; just as if both had passed through the grave, and we stood at God s feet, equal — as we are (292)! Independent â€Å"Ere I had finished this replyRead MoreSAT Top 30 Essay Evidence18536 Words   |  75 PagesWilliam Shakespeare (â€Å"To be? Or not to be?†) ...................................................................... 29 Harry Potter by J.K. Rowling (Witches, Wizards, and Muggles!) .......................................................... 31 Lord of the Flies, by William Golding (Murderous schoolboys stranded on an island!) ......................... 33 The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald (The famous American novel) ................................................ 35 Historical Events: TheRead MoreNotes18856 Words   |  76 Pagesbuildings. Transportation, for example, buses and trains, was not racially designated, but the use of higher fares and local custom made sure that Africans kept their place—in third-class coaches. Residences were segregated, with Africans in the cities confined in â€Å"African locations† with conspicuously crowded and inferior housing. As is well known, attempts were made to codify into law racial segregation in areas with substantial British settlers such as in Kenya, Zimbabwe, and South AfricaRead MoreRastafarian79520 Words   |  319 Pagesobjective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York Auckland Bangkok Buenos Aires Cape Town Chennai Dar es Salaam Delhi Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Mumbai Nairobi Sà £o Paulo Shanghai Taipei Tokyo Toronto Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries Copyright  © 2003 by Ennis Barrington Edmonds The moral rights of the authors have been

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Master of Health Management Systems Program Free Essays

My background in health care made me choose an education that would assist me in my long term career plan of the expansion of my family owned rehabilitation center. I have a BS degree in Respiratory Care from Shenandoah University, in VA and my curriculum here has laid the basic foundation for my career in the healthcare setting. I am not employed at present but I am currently a graduate student at NYU majoring in Occupational Therapy. We will write a custom essay sample on Master of Health Management Systems Program or any similar topic only for you Order Now So far in my one year experience at NYU as a graduate student, I have realized that this course would help me become a therapist but I would not be able to manage health care institutions .I can shine better as a leader and a team head rather than a therapist. I have organizing capabilities and good interactive skills that would find a better outlet in a manager’s position†¦ The greater percentage of the population in Saudi Arabia is under the age of thirty and this offers very great career prospects. I wish to make a mark in my own rehabilitation center in my home country. As I already have a family owned center I only need to refine certain systems and bring in innovative techniques. I would be a leader who is dedicated to make changes and contribute to our health care system in Saudi Arabia The health care industry in Saudi Arabia is growing rapidly and would provide excellent and challenging opportunities for providers My short term goal is to work in the ministry of health in Saudi Arabia and move up the ladder to assure better health care delivery. My long term goal is to work for the world health organization in the Middle East sector. My family has a rehabilitation center in Saudi Arabia .Ultimately I would be in a position to manage this also. I would make it a different one which is able to offer the best care possible .I have visions of expansion and opening branches. I need to survey the potential prospects in the places where I would like to branch out and run efficient organizations. I wish to bring in some innovative techniques, equipments and offer this to the patients in a cost effective manner. As an efficient manager and a healthcare provider I must be in a position to demonstrate quality outcomes, fiscal responsibility, and efficient and effective practices. To do this, I would have to collect and analyze data, incorporate innovative management techniques, and utilize new technologies to provide the best health care. This is a field that is constantly evolving. And unless I have a high quality education and the proper accompanying training, I would not be able to be a trendsetter in this field. The health professional is trained to acquire a unique blend of skills in health sciences, management and systems. As a graduate from this school, I would be prepared to understand trends and provide solutions in the evolving healthcare market. So far, my exposure has been fairly limited and though I have grand plans I do not know the integration of technology and management in this field of healthcare. This is what I would need in any healthcare organization and also in my own rehabilitation center. My ultimate aim is to improve the quality of life of physically impaired people in my residential city in Saudi Arabia and I am convinced that this Master of Health Management Systems Program would equip me with the necessary skills to fulfill my obligations to society. How to cite Master of Health Management Systems Program, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Negative Effect of Media to Women free essay sample

Negative Effect of Media to Woman In the article, â€Å"The Burka and The Bikini† by Joan Jacobs and Jacquelyn Jackson, they mention not only media can insult some cultures by showing almost nude females in their advertisement and it could also put a huge impact on most of our women’s health in the society we live in. They use two totally different views of two different world of women as their main example. They assert that some women covered up for the sake and a respect for the culture of their country and on the other hand, looking good, getting thin, and showing more skin are others women patriotic means for theirs. They also say women take this issue so serious that they risk their lives to achieve of what they believe is the media’s perception of a perfect body. Some negative outcome includes disorders and a lot of stress to our women in the society. They conclude that it does not matter if a media promotes a person naked or well dressed but what media needs to think is how this will badly affect women because their well- being is what counts for our future generation. It is very convincing what Brumber and Jackson’s claim on how negative effect of media in our society especially to women’s health is becoming an epidemic. Media is trying to make this century only for those women with perfect bodies and it is one of the big factors why our wives, daughters, sisters and a lot more women in our society are at health risks. From reality TV shows, newspapers, ad advertisements, billboards, and TV commercials, mostly thin and big breasted women are the star and most popular. It could be that the head of the media is a man? Not necessary, because not all men have the same perception of what a perfect woman is. As a matter of fact, I talk to my friend Ryan Pitts, who is my work out partner and works for Amtrak and ask him, what is your perfect description of attractive woman? He answers â€Å"umm ok, a woman should look normal and natural. Oh definitely, they need some makeup, their hair done, flattering clothes and shoes, but don’t overdo it. Too skinny is gross with your bones poking out everywhere its nasty. And for those of you who think you need breast implants think again! They look so fake, and you cant hide that unless you cover up completely. † Because of media, most American women are suffering with a disorder called â€Å"Anorexia Nervosa,† the restriction and refusal of food to maintain a minimal normal body weight. One of the popular methods is vomiting using ipecac syrup, a medicinal plant from Brazil, and will trigger the central nervous system that will cause vomiting. One of the early tragic victim of Anorexia is for instance; Karen Carpenter, a popular singer of the 70’s. According to the article â€Å"Battling Anorexia: The Story of Karen Carpenter† by Adena Young, â€Å"Ever since Karen Carpenter died in 1983, doctors, scientists, and therapists, among many others, have been investigating the cause of this fatal eating disorder. One common cause, as everyone agrees, is American culture and the media. For the past few decades, there has been an American philosophy of trim and slim. This is a nation where it is sexy to be skinny and where fitness centers and more recently, dieting supplements, are being advertised more than anything else †¦Ã¢â‚¬  So Anorexia has been around for decades now and it was clearly states on Young’s article that media is one of the reason. He also mentions, â€Å"Anorexia is especially common among young white girls and those who need to have more control over their lives. Among anorexics, y ou will find female hyper-achievers, fashion models, dancers, gymnasts, and ballet troupes. ANDRED (Anorexia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders, Inc. ) research suggests that about one percent of female adolescents have anorexia. That means that about one out of every one hundred young women between ten and twenty are starving themselves, sometimes to death. There do not seem to be reliable figures for younger children and older adults, but such cases, while they do occur, are not common. Furthermore, media advertisement about different kind of diet pills is another factor of how badly they affect women’s minds. They will put a young skinny model, who reads a script and really does not have anything to do with the product that she is trying to advertise to those women that are desperate to lose their fat. She is a model and gets pay to that job so what to expect. As a matter of fact, according to Jason Parker in his article, â€Å"The Bad Side Effects of Diet Pills† He states, If youre thinking about resorting to diet pills for your weight problems, consider this. Dizziness, nervousness, anxiety, restlessness, blurred vision, fatigue, insomnia, heart failure, severe headaches, hair loss, urinary tract problems, tremors, hallucinations, heart attack, shortness of breath, dizziness, vomiting, dry mouth, diarrhea, constipation, stroke, convulsions, hyperactivity, addiction to pills, and heart palpitations These are some of the side effects of diet pills according to medical specialists (Parker). A diet pill is no different than the taking of steroids that might work for some time but in a long run the bad side effects will kick in and take effect. It is a form of pill that can poison women’s body but also their mind. Media is affecting our society in some ways that women will extremely do anything like plastic surgery to achieve what media calls â€Å"the perfect body. † According to the Cosmeticplasticsurgerystatistic. com, â€Å"nearly 11. 7 million cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures were performed in the United States in 2007. † What is that statistics tells us? Women will spend ridiculous amount of money to fit an artificial image created by an every expanding media. Reality TV shows like â€Å"Extreme Makeover† and Dr. 0210 are some of the most influential in media. Plastic surgery procedure like nose and lips reshaping, liposuction and breast augmentation are the most common procedures. It is faster way of loosing something that you do not want in your body so why not. It is a severe problem because we are giving young women a bad idea, and they think it is normal to do so. Media kee p showing this nicely done breast implants and a well done liposuction but where are those people that failed and even worst like died or people that they messed up on during and after the procedure. Going through such experience will really make people think hard and make smarter decision because once it is done it is scar that will not go away forever. Brumberg and Jackson asserts on how badly media influence our women in our society and brainwashes women’s mind on how they should have to look. The outcome of negative advertisement to woman’s mind could include, disorder, stress, lowered self-esteem and worst case scenario- death. According to Brumberg and Jackson conclusion, no matter where a woman’s from it does not matter if they are showing extra skin or not, what really counts is the woman’s health of our next generation. I have learned how powerful media is and that because of them most of our women will actually take the risks of endangering their lives. In the article, â€Å"In your face †¦All Over the Place! † by Jean Kilbourne, he clearly states, Advertising constantly promotes the core belief of American culture: that we can create ourselves, transform ourselves, transcended our circumstances-but with a twist For generations Americans believed if we work hard enough, like Horatio Alger. Today the promise is what we can change our lives instantly, effortlessly-by winning a lottery, selecting the right mutual fund, having a fashion makeover, losing weight, having tighter abs, buying the right car or softdrink. It is this belief that such transformation is possibles that drives us to keep dieting, to buy more stuff, to read fashion magazines that give us the same information over and over again†¦(373). It is actually the point of this argument, â€Å"it sounds too good to be true. † If you do not read the fine print, media is a conspiracy and a big corrupted propaganda. It is like a contagious disease on people’s mind especially for women in a bad way. It has to stop somewhere. Media is everywhere, people do not have a choice but to look and listen to all the lies. In a sense, they will buy it, and they had to because it is a gradual adaptation to our society. People just need to remember don’t let media fool you on what beauty standard should be. If people want to be thin or healthy, they just need to change their bad habit to good lifestyle and have a positive healthy attitude. Doing it right is worth a lot in a long run.

Monday, March 23, 2020

Philosophy Of Mind Essays - Philosophy Of Artificial Intelligence

Philosophy Of Mind In this paper I plan to show that Searle is correct in claiming that his Chinese Room Analogy shows that any Turing machine simulation of human understanding of a linguistic phenomenon fails to possess any real understanding. First I will explain the Chinese Room Analogy and how it is compared to a Turing machine. I will then show that the machine can not literally be said to understand. A Turing machine has a infinite number of internal states, but always begins a computation in the initial state go. Turing machines can be generalized in various ways. For example many machines can be connected, or a single machines may have more than one reader-printer under command of the control. The machines are set to accept input and give output based on the type of input given. When comparing the Turing machine simulation of understanding to actual human understanding you ca see the story given as input, and the answers to questions about the story as output. In the Chinese Room Analogy Searle supposed that he was locked in a room with a large batch of Chinese writing referred to as "scripts". By using the term "script" it is meant to say that this first batch of Chinese writing is the original or principal instrument or document. Further more in this case he is said not to know any Chinese, either written or spoken. The Chinese writing is described by Searle as " meaningless squiggles". Next he is presented with a second batch of Chinese writing referred to as a "story". The term story here is meant to describe the second batch to be an account of incidents or events that will be used to make a statement regarding the facts pertinent to the incidents or events that will follow. Accompanied with the second batch of writing is a set of written rules written in English that is meant to be used for correlating the two batches called a "program". The "program" given to Searle is meant to used as a printed outline of a particular order to be followed to correlate the Chinese symbols. The rules, or the "program", will allow Searle to correlate the symbols entirely by their shape. Finally a third batch of Chinese symbols is presented along with further instructions in English, referred to as "questions". The "questions" are implemented as a way to interrogate Searle in such a manner that his competence in the situation will be given. These "questions" allow the third batch to be correlated with the first two batches. It is supposed in this analogy that after a while he becomes so good at following the instructions to manipulate the symbols, while giving the correct answers, that is becomes impossible for a man from outside the direct point of view to distinguish his answers from that of a native Chinese speaker. The Chinese Room Analogy goes a step further when he is given large batches of English, called "stories", which he of course understands as native English speaker. The story in this case is to be used just as it was in the previous case, to describe the batch as an account of incidents or events that will be used to make a statement regarding the facts pertinent to the incidents or events that will follow. Much like the case with the Chinese writing questions are asked in English and he is able to answer them, also in English. These answers are indistinguishable from that of other native English speakers, if for no other reason that he is a native speaker himself. The difference here is that in the Chinese case, Searle is only producing answers based on manipulation of the symbols of which have no meaning to him, and in the English case answers are given based on understanding. It is supposed that in the Chinese case, Searle behaves as nothing more than a computer, performing operations on formally specified elements. An advocate of the strong AI (Artificial Intelligence) claim that if a question and answer sequence much like the case with the Chinese symbols, a machine is not only simulating human ability but also that the machine can be said to literally understand a story and provide answers to questions about them. Searle declares that in regard to the first claim where machine can literally be said to understand a story and provide answers, that this is untrue. Obviously in the Chinese Room Analogy even though the inputs and outputs are indistinguishable from that of native Chinese speaker Searle

Friday, March 6, 2020

Pell Grant Eligibility and Requirements Do You Qualify

Pell Grant Eligibility and Requirements Do You Qualify SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Pell Grants are awarded by the federal US government to help students pay for college or vocational school.Figuring out whether you're eligible can be confusing, but this post will guide you through all the eligibility requirements you should knowabout if you want to apply for a federal Pell Grant. If you need a basic intro to what the Pell Grant is, check out our overview guide. Students are automatically considered for the Pell Grant when they submit their Free Application for Federal Student Aid, or FAFSA. You can learn more about submission here. In this post, we'll cover the following: How to figure out whether you're eligiblefor federal student aid What the Pell Grant income limits are How to figure out whether you're eligible for the Pell Grant specifically Pell Grant award maximums What you can do to increase your chances of getting the Pell Grant What Are the Federal Student Aid Requirements? Because the Pell Grant is a federal aid program, you need to meet basic eligibility for federal student aid in order to be considered for the Pell.There are a lot of complicated-seeming requirements, so we put together two lists that describeeverything you need before applying for aid. You need to check off every item on List #1 and one item on List #2. List #1 In order to be eligible for all federal aid, including the Pell Grant, you must meet all the following eligibility criteria: Eligibility Requirement Do you meet this criterion? Have a high school diploma, GED, or approved homeschool education Be enrolled or accepted to enroll in an eligible degree/certificate program You can check with your school/program’s financial aid office if you want to confirm eligibility Be registered with Selective Service,if you are male and 18-25 years old If applicable,register on the SS website Have a valid Social Security Number (unless you’re from the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, or Republic of Palau) Sign statements on the FAFSA stating that (1) you’re not in default and do not owe refund money on a federal student loan, and (2) you’ll only use federal aid money to help pay for your education Access the FAFSA Maintain "satisfactory" progress in school If you’re concerned about your academic performance or have questions about what is considered "satisfactory," set up a meeting with your dean or other school administrator List #2 In addition to the items listed above, you must be able to check ONEof the following: Be a US citizen or US national Have a green card Have an Arrival-Departure Record (I-94) Have battered immigrant status Have a T-Visa These are all the requirements necessary to apply for federal financial aid.If you didn't have any issues with the items listed above, you're on the right track! Want to build the best possible college application and financial aid package? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in. Making sure you meet these requirements is a hassle, but it's worth it for free money, right? What Are the Pell Grant Requirements? There are a few eligibility requirements specific to the Pell Grant that you need to meet on top of the federal requirements we just discussed. Let's start by answering an important question: what are the Pell Grant income limits? The Pell Grant is meant primarily for low-income students who have not already received a post-secondary degree.There are some exceptions to this, but they're rare. For the purpose of this post, I'll be focusing onfuture and current college students. In a nutshell, to be considered eligible for the Pell Grant, you: Mustdemonstrate enough financial need (we'll get to the details of this shortly) Cannot already have a bachelor's or professional degree Easy enough, right? In the next section, I'll explain exactly what I mean when I say you need to demonstrate "enough financial need." What Are the Financial Need Requirements? This seems like a simple question, but the answer is actually somewhat complicated. Before I can answer this question, I need to briefly explain what financial information is considered important, and why. The Department of Education- the government department in charge of federal financial aid- takes a lot of factors into consideration when determiningwhether to award the Pell Grant. Put simply, the greater your family's financial need is, the greater the likelihood that you'll be awarded the grant. There's more to determining financial need than just looking at how much your parents make, however; your family's expenses are alsotaken into account. Lower income + more expenses = greater need. Allow me tobreak down what counts as income and what counts as an expense: Income: Your own personal income (if any) Your parents' income Assets belonging to you or your parents (e.g., savings or things they could own, such as a house) Expense: Number of people living in your household (more people = more expense) Number of family members (not including parents) who are attending college Your school's Cost of Attendance, or CoA- that is,how much you have to pay in tuition, room, board, and other expenses for one year Now that we've gotten through that information, I can better explain how your family's unique financial situation is analyzed when you're considered for a Pell Grant. All the above factors- income and expenses- are used to calculate yet another number called an Expected Family Contribution (EFC). If your EFC is at or below $5,140 for the 2019-20 academic year, you will be eligible to receive the Pell Grant. Each family's financial situation is different, and there's no one income cutoff that makes a student eligible or ineligible to receive the Pell. With that being said, here are some important facts to note: Most Pell Grants are awarded to students whose families make less than $30,000 annually Some Pell Grants are awarded to students whose families make $30,000-$60,000 annually It's possible but rare for students to be awarded the grant if their families make more than $60,000 annually What Are the Requirements After You Get Your Pell Grant? Do You Ever Need to Repay Pell Grants? After you have met the requirements for both FAFSA and the Pell Grant, and have been awarded your Pell Grant, it's pretty easy to remain eligible for the grant. All you need to do is stay in school. However, if you drop out of school while you're receiving a Pell Grant or change from full-time student status to part-time student status, you might be required to repay all or part of your Pell Grant for that year or semester. If your school determines that you need to repay your Pell Grant, they'll send you a notice informing you of how much you owe and when you'll need to pay it by. You'll typically have 45 days to either pay the amount in full or set up a payment plan. You might have to focus a little more than you'd like on the family finances. How Much Money Can You Get From a Pell Grant? For 2019-2020, the maximum Pell Grant award is $6,195.Factors such as the amount of your Expected Family Contribution and enrollment status (full-time vs part-time) will affect how much money you can get. You can learn more about calculating your EFC with our Pell Grant Calculatorguide. What If You Don't Qualify for a Pell Grant? If you're above the Pell Grant income limits, there's not much you can do to change your family's financial situation, which is the maincriterionused when you apply for a Pell Grant. There are certain factors under your control that might affect your eligibility. Here are some potential eligibility issues and solutions: If you don't have a high school diploma but would like to attend college, you can get a GED to meet federal financial aid requirements. Make sure you apply to and enroll in colleges or vocational programs that participate in the Pell Grant program. If you're unsure whether a school is involved in the program, you can check with that school's financial aid office. If you're not eligible for financial aid because you're in default on a federal student loan, focus on paying back that debt before applying for more federal aid. Summary: How Pell Grant Eligibility Works The Pell Grant is anannual award given out by the federal government to students who need help paying for college.If you apply for FAFSA, you'll be automatically considered for a Pell Grant. To meet the Pell Grant requirements, you'll need to meet all the federal eligibility requirements for financial aid and provethat your expected family contribution is at or below $5,140 for the 2019-2020 school year. Currently, the maximum Pell Grant award is $6,195. Once you receivea Pell Grant, you don't need to pay it back, unless you drop out of school or change from full-time to part-time student status, in which case you'll need to repay all or part of your Pell Grant. What's Next? If you're already looking at how to get a Pell Grant, you might already know about the program. If not, you can read about everything you need to know in our in-depthPell Grant guide. Are you still putting together your college applications? You might want to learn more about application strategy and versatility. For more information on getting into your top-choice schools, check out our step-by-step guide. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Law for business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 2

Law for business - Essay Example Sharma for injury of her son. In business transactions there are certain terms and conditions which are eithor clearly mentioned at the time of making the contract or these might be implied be the law. When these conditions are express and are not otherwise contradictory to the legal provisions enacted in the country, these conditions are legal and are liable to be upheld by the court of law. However, these conditions are not express in the contract. Here a question raises that if there is no expressly defined contract between the buyer and the seller, then how a buyer can protect his rights? This gap is filled by some implied conditions in form of implied warranties and guarentees in any sale of goods. These implied terms are important because it is not always possible to enter into a written contract everytime, when thre is a sale. warranty of fitness for a particular purpos is one of these warranties. As per Section 14 (2) of Sales of Goods Act 19791, (Sales of Goods Act, 1979) the seller sells goods in the course of a business, there is an implied term that the goods supplied under the contract are of satisfactory quality and for the purpose of its usage. Section (2) (b) speaks of the satisfactory quality of goods including their state and condition including its appearance and finishing, safety, freedom from defects and durability etc. However, there is no requirement for satisfactory quality if attention of the buyer is drawn before finalizing of contract or if buyer examines the goods for defects beforehand/prior to making contract. As per Section 2 of Consumer Protection Act 19872, (Consumer Protection Act, 1987) if damage is caused, wholly or partly, by defect in the product, the producer of the product and the person who imported or supplied the product shall be liable for damage. Similarly, as per judgment in (KG

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

District curriculum, instruction, and assessment leader to develop a Research Paper

District curriculum, instruction, and assessment leader to develop a comprehensive menu of district data needed to - Research Paper Example Each indicator has a goal, and districts that fail to meet that goal receive a point deduction from their Overall Accountability Score. Goals were set by looking at statewide data and establishing thresholds that identify districts contributing the most to lowering Wisconsin’s overall performance in the areas below. Every district has a goal of 95 percent participation in the Wisconsin Student Assessment System (WSAS). The districts performance is measured by the participation rate of the lowest-participating student group. If this rate is less than 95 percent, but at least 85 percent, five points are deducted from the districts overall score; if this rate is less than 85 percent, 10 points are deducted. This indicator describes the proportion of students in the district who attend school less than 84.1 percent of the time. If the absenteeism rate in the district is 13 percent or more, five points are deducted. The absenteeism rate is different from the attendance rate because it measures students who are absent from school a certain amount of time, not how often students are present in school. The goal for all districts is to have a dropout rate of less than six percent. A district not meeting the goal has five points deducted from its score. Note that dropout rate is not the opposite of graduation rate. A dropout rate includes any student who leaves school in grades 7-12 without expecting to earn a high school diploma, while a graduation rate counts students who earn a high school diploma within a certain time (four or six years) after starting ninth grade. The Albany district is under the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (DPI) which uses the Wisconsin Student Assessment System (WSAS) as the basis for its instructional data analysis. The Wisconsin Student Assessment System (WSAS) includes test results from both the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examination (WKCE) and the Wisconsin Alternate Assessment for Students with Disabilities

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Causes of Rwandas Involvement in the DRC

Causes of Rwandas Involvement in the DRC To what extent has Rwandas involvement  in the DRC been of economically  rather than militarily motivated? Abstract Conflict! That word represents the history of Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in terms of their internal struggles as to who will control the destinies of these countries. The saga has encompassed over forty years, and as neighbours, has affected and impacted both countries negatively. Africa is known for its high degree of internal power struggles that have left its masses in poverty as a result of its leaders seeking political control at almost any cost. This condition has not escaped either Rwanda or the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This study shall seek to understand the dynamics of the national connection between Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in terms of the extent that Rwanda’s involvement has been economically or militarily oriented. The preceding represents the opportunity to examine the relationship of these two neighbouring countries to uncover the extent as well as nature of the dynamics that have and are shaping their interaction. Introduction The purpose of this examination has broad and far-reaching implications, in that it seeks to look ate the very core of the relationship of these two African nation states. As such, the objectives will entail: The formulation of an understanding of the historical nuances and overt interaction between these two countries. Taking a look at the military as well as economic involvement. Delving into the political and regional circumstances that have had and or are having a bearing on the foregoing. Equating the extent that military or economic involvement has been and or is an issue The nature of this inquiry requires an examination of two dissimilar areas, economics and military activities, as well as how these might and or have dovetailed into each other, as the lines of separation are not always clear. Background Key to understanding the nature of the question that asks the extent that Rwanda’s involvement with the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been economically rather than militarily motivated, a brief understanding of the histories of these two countries will provide a foundational underpinning to uncover the direction of their relationship and national connections. Rwanda is located in the east-central region of Africa, bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in an area that measures 26,338 square kilometres[1]. Figure 1 – Map of Rwanda[2] Orginally inhabited by a Pygmy tribe called the Twa, the agriculuturally founded Hutus suplanted them some six centuries ago[3]. In order to plant crops the Hutus cleared forests and established permanent settlements[4]. The Twa still remian in Rwanda, although their population is estimated to number approximately 1 percent of the overall total[5]. As was the case with Africa in that period, other tribes migrated to the region, whose greenery and grasslands drew the cattle owning Tutsi[6]. Aslo known as Watutsi, they came to the region of Rwanda around the 1600s and were consisted as more elite than the Hutus even though the two groups speak the same language[7]. Part of the reason as to why the Tutsi (Watutsi) were considered elite is that they are extremely tall, averaging 2.1 metres in height, and of thin build[8]. The aristocratic leanings of the Tutsi, they held the peasant Hutu in fuedal subjugation[9]. The opinions on the differences between the cultures of the Hutu and Tutis is marginal, consisting primarly of the agricultural versus cattle tendencies of the aforementioned. Considerable intermarriage between the two groups further watered down differences, with the couple assuming the race of the fathers, and the difference in terms of tribe constructed along the lines of a caste system whereby the Tutsi are considered the higher class[10]. Prior to the arrival of the Germans, the administration system that existed in Rwanda was highly organised and presided over by what is termed as a Umwami (king) that was usually of the Nyiginya clan of a Tutsi sub-group[11]. In the administrative pecking order the Umwami had almost absolute power, and was assisted bt three chiefs[12]: A military chief that oversaw the army and saw to the maintenance of integrity of the territory and expansion. A cattle chief that supervised all matters representing cattle, grazing as well as the settlement of disputes, and A land chief that oversaw agriculture, produce and allied concerns. The preceding is in keeping with the cultural make up of the territory that was comprised of cattle and agricultural tribes, along with their protection and securing additional lands. Within the aforementioned pecking order the Umwami and the military and cattle chiefs were Tutsi, with the agricultural chief generally being Hutu[13]. The Rwandan society represents a system that is termed as ubuhake, that is a type of caste system of the landed gentry, the less landed, and the ordinary citizens[14]. There are those who argue that in reality that the economic system of Ubuhake enables a symbitic relationship between the wealthy and priveged calsses with the less priviliged[15]. The preceding system and class relationsips enjoyed a 400 year history of peacefulness. The German’s colonised Rwanda in 1899, ruling the country indirectly through the Mwami and the three chieftans via a protecorate arrangement as a result of the effectiveness of the Rwandan Ubuhabe system[16]. During the first World War the country became known as Ruanda-Urundi, which represented a combination of Rwanda and Burundi under a Belgian League of Nations mandate[17]. The preceding established a trust territory under the United Nations that lasted until 1946[18]. During that period the Belgium administration at first maintained Tutsi dominance in the Ubuhabe governmental system overseen by the Mwani and the three chieftans[19]. The preceding was slowly changed to a power sharing arrangement between the Tutsi and Hutu after ethnic tensions escalated into a civil war that forced a large number of Tutsi to leave the country[20]. The 1st of July 1962 saw the mandated country of Ruanda-Urundi seperated back into Rwanda and Burundi, with the more numberous Hutu’s rul ing the country. With a majority of the population represented by Hutu (85%), to just 15% for the Tutsi, the change in political structure in 1962 was inevitable[21]. It is important to note that the conflict between the Hutu and Tutsi began as early as the 1950s when Tutsi forces attacked the Hutu politician Dominique Mbonyumutwa, setting off what is called â€Å"†¦ the wind of destruction †¦Ã¢â‚¬  as the Hutu attacked the Tutsi population[22]. In 1959 the Hutus overthrew the Tutsi king, which also contributed to the preceding[23]. Some 150,000 Tutsi that flew the country as a result of Hutu control setting up guerrila goups in neighboring countries, noteably Uganda[24]. Over the ensuing years, the children of the exiles formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front, that started a civil war in 1990[25]. The preceding historical background is important in understanding the chain of events that transpired in Rwanda, bringing it to present day. That history, present day stemming from the 1990s, contains the fore runner as well as aftermath of events that represent the purpose of this study, that will be investigated in a review of literature to delve into background facets. As Rwanda represents the central country in this study, the Democratic Republic of the Congo shall be explored later. The focus of this examination is to look into the extent that the involvement of Rwanda with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been movitivated more by economics than military reasons. Methodology The investigation as proposed by this study is a question that entails looking deeply into the status and ramifications of the relations of these two countries on a number of levels. As it is probable that there is no literature or other research information available that equates this question directly, the approach to this study will have to take on varied directions and research approaches to uncover information germane to the examination. The preceding being the general overall case, the research methodology will of course include a wide breathe of secondary research sources to secure historical as well as contemporary information. Given that this study entails two sovereign countries, the history between these two nations represents the logical starting point, as the timeline of convergence with respect to the Rwanda and the Congo thus represents the starting point in examining the nature of their relations. The preceding represents a key to this study as the answer to the question as posed by this examination exists somewhere within the foregoing. Secondary research provides the opportunity to review the largest and broadest amount of information possible as it entails books, journals, magazine articles, newspapers and Internet sources[26]. The foregoing affords the opportunity to look at many differing facets, as the scope of economic and military interaction can take on many forms, especially in the context of the unstructured region of Africa that has a long history of intra nation conflicts and other disputes. Secondary research represents a technique that is used extensively as it provides a broad realm of informational possibilities and inputs as well as opinions that might contain and or provide insight and or information that aids in the examination. The shortcoming of the process of utilising secondary research is that the possibility exists that one might be subject to the possible bias of the author whose work was conducted to delve into, prove, understand or make a point. However, secondary research also provides a means to minimise that potential through using and or searching for facts that reveal themselves in more than one source. The preceding duality of data provides some assurance that the information and or information direction has some validity. Powell[27] asserts that the foregoing represents a sane course of research in that secondary sources: are generally plentiful, that in using secondary sources, one needs to exercise care in looking for as well as drawing out pertinent information, that a benefit of secondary research is that large volumes of data can be correlated in a time frame that is reasonable, the expense of obtaining secondary research is extremely beneficial, the broad range of possibilities as offered by the exposure to a wide breathe of information makes secondary research more valuable in that it is easy to verify most information. As is always the case with an upside in any endeavour that are the negative connotations as well. Powell[28] brings forth these areas by advising: In terms of word usage and meaning, the seeming direction of statements can take on a different connotation and or meaning in a specific context or series of contexts than one might be prepared to understand or acknowledge. The aforementioned bias in terms of the source can skew information as indicated. The recommended method to minimise such an occurrence is by comparative information from other sources. The dating and or ageing of information can potentially change the validity of researched data if new developments have changed the outcomes, or data is uncovered later that invalidates conceptions that existed before. Seeking historical and contemporary research to look for consistency with regard to the foregoing aids in minimising dated or information that has lost its relevance. In keeping with the preceding need to ensure that recent information, discoveries and or findings did not or had not changed the conditions of the study, the Internet was utilised to look for potential modifications in approaches, as well as to compare source reliability. The research used quantitative research to a small degree as it helped in the understanding of question components from an historical perspective. Daymon and Holloway[29] advise that quantitative measures tend to have a large-scale approach that focuses on specific factors that are thus looked at in relationship to other data. Given the need to uncover information in a quest for the answer, which at the time of beginning the research was unknown, quantitative research was the only viable course of action. Literature Review In conducting the examination of the historical Background of Rwanda in Section 2.0, a look into the developmental aspects of the country brought forth the progression of events that helped to shape the country up to the 1990s. In order to bring into focus the purpose of this study as represented by to what extent has Rwanda’s involvement in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) been of economically movitated as opposed to military reasons, a brief look into the developmental path of the country from the 1990s is in order. 4.1 Rwanda As brought forth in Section 2.0 Background, the country’s history was shaped by the administrative skills of the Tutsi who took control of the country nearly 400 years ago. That rule lasted until 1 July 1962 that saw the mandated country of Ruanda-Urundi seperated back into Rwanda and Burundi, with the more numberous Hutu’s ruling the country[30]. The civil war that gripped the country in the 1990s was, has has been the history of Africa, and the world, a struggle for power and wealth[31]. Though vastly outnumbered in terms of population, the Hutu were not as organised or bloodthrusty as the Tutsi. A large number of the exiled Tutsi served in the Uganda rebel forces and learned guerilla tactics, thus providing them with needed experience[32]. The preceding provided the foundation for the Rwandan Patriotic Front under Paul Kagame to gain recruits and thus their planned invasion of Rwanda[33]. The fierce fighting for the three year period between 1990 and 1993 prompted a cease fire that became known s the Arusha accord, which was devised to organised a power sharing government to end the civil conflict that had caused the displacement of over 1.5 million Hutus that had been massacred by the Rwandan Patriotic Front[34]. The preceding Arusha accord crumbled as a result of an assassination of the Hutu Burundi president Melchior Ndadaye by Burundian Tutsi in their army[35]. That event spurred a new era of Hutu / Tutsi hatred that caused the accord to crumble. Ensuing events saw the Rwandan Patriotic Front bomb the Rwanda capital of Kigali, as well as assassinate the Hutu president of Rwanda as well as the Hutu president of Burundi by shooting down their jet as it attempted a landing in Kigali[36]. The preceding evnts caused an intensification in the conflict between the Hutu and Tutsi that resulted in the deaths of an estimated 800,000 Tutsis and Hutu moderates[37]. The Tutsi led forces continued their military campaign, capturing the capital and eventually caused over 2 million Hutus to flee the country [38]. The Tutsi dominantion again asserted itself in Rwanda as it took control of the government in 1994 at the end of the civil war and have held power since, The Rwandan Patriotic Front re-wrote the history of its genocide and placed its version of how events transpired into the consitution[39]. 4.2 The Democratic Republic of the Congo The area known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was inhabited approximately 10,000 years ago, and was settled by the Bantu people from what is now known as Nigeria between the 7th and 8th centuries[40]. The â€Å"†¦ Portuguguese navigator Diego Cao †¦Ã¢â‚¬  discovered the Congo in 1482, and it is well known as the locale that was â€Å"†¦ explored by English journalist Henry Morton Stanley †¦Ã¢â‚¬ [41]. Figure 2 – Democratic Republic of the Congo[42] The Congo was originally given the name Zaire as a result of Diego Cao misspelling the Kilongo term for river[43]. At that time, the Kongo kingdom as it was spelled then[44]: â€Å"†¦stretched from northern Angola to the north bank of the Congo River, in the area now known as Bas Zaire. The kingdom, with its capital at Mbanza Kongo, had a well-established centralized system of government; it was divided into six provinces, each administered by a local governor appointed by the king. Within each province Kongo district chiefs governed in their respective areas, and at the village level headmen were accountable to the district chiefs. The king was elected from the male descendants of the individual who had conquered the area. Although he was a member of the aristocracy and appeared to have absolute power, the king was in fact subject to the control of a council of elders who could depose him.† Soon after Diego Cao’s discovery the Portuguese government established diplomatic relations with the kingdom that fostered socioeconomic exchanges[45]. The influence of that union brought Catholicism to Zaire (The Democratic Republic of the Congo), along with Portuguese customs[46]. The preceding[47].: â€Å"†¦ greatly facilitated development of the slave trade in the region. Slaves purchased from the Kongo provided cheap labour for plantations on nearby Portuguese islands and, subsequently, the Americas† The slave trade escalated into an issue as it depopulated vast areas and also resulted inborder raids thus causing warefare with neighboring tribes[48]. The economics of the slave trade cause fighting within Zaire itself as rival groups fought for dominance[49]. Internal infighting over â€Å"†¦the slave trade undermined political authority and created social stratification in the kingdom† [50]. The history of the Congo was not as politically charged as Rwanda, yet as has been the case in all Afgrican countries, the paths to independence and after have been faught with issues. In addition to the slave trade, there was also the ivory trade that brought Arabs into the Congo fostered the slave trade as well as in ivory[51]. In the late 1950s the subject of decolonialisation was brought up by President Charles de Gaulle for the French colonies in Africa fueling the desire for the same status in the Congo[52]. The Belgians â€Å"†¦were given some indication of the extent of Congolese nationalist feeling when riots broke out in the capital† in 1959[53]. The change in the overall political approach to Africa fostered the offering of free elections in 1960 and resulted in installing â€Å"†¦Patrice Lumumba as prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu as president of the renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo† [54]. Lumumba’s victory was by a narrow margin, with his party gaining just 24% of the 137 seats in the Assembly, thus â€Å"†¦underscoring the fragmentation that existed in party affiliations† [55]. As a result of the foregoing independence did not achieve the expectations that the country dreamed of. Within two weeks of the elections the country plunged into a maj or crisis â€Å"†¦following the mutiny of the former colonial army and the secession of Katanga, its richest province†[56]. The new Democratic Republic of the Congo was suffering its first crisis that lasted for four years and resulted in the deployment of U.N. peacekeeping forces[57]. Patrice Lumumba was assassinated on order from then U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower as a result of his strong communist affiliations during the Cold War period[58]. That situation enabled the United States to install their hand picked selection â€Å"†¦ Joseph Desire Mobutu, who later changed his forename to Sese Seko†, who had been a sergeant in the army The preceding was accomplished by a coup d’etat in 1965[59]. Mobutu established a dictatorship that was backed up by his military cronies, as well as the United States, Belgium and France in order to ensure that communist party forces could not regain control of what was now called Zaire[60]. The foregoing alliance was needed as Mobutu faced rebellion â€Å"†¦from armed insurgents seeking to overthrow him† [61]. The arrangement failed in 1997 when the rebels forced Mobutu to flee the country[62]. Nzongola[63] helps us to understand the linkage between Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire) as he advises[64]: â€Å"The insurgency that brought about Mobutus demise is directly related to the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, the defining moment of the current political situation in the Great Lakes region. Like the ethnic cleansing in the Katanga and Kivu provinces of Mobutus Zaire, the Rwandan genocide was partly a result of the violent backlash of authoritarian regimes against the democracy movement. In the Rwanda case, the late President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, had been in power since 1973. During 20 years of personal rule, he steadfastly refused to allow Tutsi victims of the 1959 pogrom and subsequent violence, who were in exile in neighbouring countries, to return home. Under the leadership of the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF), the Tutsi diaspora in Uganda launched a military campaign to overthrow the Habyarimana regime in October 1990. France, Belgium and Mobutus Zaire came to the dictators rescue and prevented an RPF victory.† The background history on Rwanda, in terms of the Arusha Peace Agreement that was signed on 4 August 1993, brings these two countries developmental path into closer proximity [65]. The Congo shares part of its border with Rwanda, thus affording the Tutsi a location as a rallying point for raids and attacks. Nzongola tells us[66]: â€Å"In this situation, the disintegration of the Mobutu regime provided Rwanda with an opportunity to make incursions into the Kivu provinces in order to destroy the bases of the ex-FAR and the Interahamwe, beginning in August 1996. When it appeared that the Mobutu regime was militarily incapable of challenging these incursions, Rwanda and Uganda assembled a coalition of states in Eastern and Southern Africa including Angola, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Namibia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe with the objective of getting rid of Mobutu altogether.† 4.3 Common Histories Between the Two Countries The preceding historical summaries of the violent regimes in Rwanda and the Congo have a commonality, control of these respective countries. The series of conflicts in Rwanda has resulted in large refugee populations in its neighbouring countries, with the Democratic Republic of the Congo receiving the largest number of them since the genocide of 1994[67]. The displaced persons formed the foundation for the long series of conflicts in Rwanda that â€Å"†¦has had a destabilizing effect on the entire Great Lakes region, including Rwanda[68]. As set forth in Chapter 2.0 Background, the Hutus comprise approximately 85% of the Rwandan population as farmers. One of the economic problems that has and does face the country is the scarcity of land for agriculture, along with access to resources[69]. The problem has caused cultivation to encroach on wetlands as well as reserve and national park areas in order to met the demands of the poor, with the large numbers of displaced Rwandans pl acing stress on areas such as forests and other ecologically sensitive areas[70]. Given the 85% agriculturally based Hutu population in Rwanda, land scarcity represents an issue that has plagued the country since the 1980s, which has been further exacerbated by the Tutsi / Hutu conflicts. As one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, Rwanda’s land shortage problem has been an historical facet[71]. An example of the dwindling land space in Rwanda is evidenced by the fact that the average land held by household in the country has decreased from 2 ha in 1960, down to 1.2 ha in 1984, dropping to 0.7 ha in the beginning of the 1990s, and as of 2001 just under 60% of all Rwandan household held less than 0.5 ha [72]. The country has an overall area of 26,338 square km, and a population of approximately 8 million that translates into a population density of approximately 300 people per kilometre[73]. Of the foregoing overall land total 1.3 million hectares is estimated as arable, with 165,000 hectares of marshlands, of which an estimated 50% is suitable for agriculture. Agriculture is the cornerstone of the Rwandan economy, and occupies over 90% of the country’s rural area [74]. The preceding foundation, agriculture and the economy, is fraught with issues as represented by[75]: The country has a high density of population that puts extreme pressures on land area and usage. The average cultivation plot per household is around 0.6 ha, which is below the 0.9 ha as recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. The preceding conditions have led to the over utilisation of the land, made more problematic by the lack of proper crop rotation techniques and nutrient use thus leading to continued degradation. The lack of the foregoing as well as conservation methods and proper equipment has further exacerbated the problem. The genocide of 1994 is still impacting land use and agriculture in that plots left to orphans and widows by family members who are deceased has not been managed properly. The land system in Rwanda is controlled under customary law that is skewed towards the partitioning of land via a father to son inheritance system. The preceding, inheritance system, makes the land system unfavorable to women as well as female children. The poverty level of the country means that agricultural are backward, lacking proper equipment, use of nutrients and crop rotation techniques. The preceding are known problems, which the Rwandan government has addressed through the following reform measures[76]: Institutions such as the Ministry of Lands, along with the Human Settlement as well as environmental Protection policies have been established since 1999. The country has moved to develop a National land Policy as well as Land Law that are dedicated to promote the use of good land management. The main innovations under the later are represented by a new legal framework that regulates the registration of land, along with the delivery of its title through a leasehold period of 99 years. It also includes a framework that regulates land planning. Under consideration is a proposal that utilises a centrally based and computerized National Land Information System to facilitate an accurate as well as complete land database through which effective land management can be put into place. The foregoing includes district centres to gather information through survey and documentation of titles, as well as closer liaison in terms of overseeing and delivering land management procedures and utilisation. Limited natural resources in Rwanda, as represented by columbite-tantalite, cassiterite, and wolframite are the most important minerals, followed by small deposits of gold and sapphires[77]. Agriculture represents 43% of the country’s economy, which primarily consists of coffee and tea exports that have yet to return to the pre 1996 genocide levels[78]. The country’s agricultural system is comprised primarily of small family farms that keep approximately 80% of their output for their own consumption, thus leaving little for export[79]. Typical family farm growth crops consists of bananas 62.5%, sweet potatoes – 17.9%, Cassava – 4.5%, Irish potatoes – 4.3%, beans and peas – 3.9%, sorghum – 2.9%, maize – 1.4% along with wheat, soya and groundnuts[80]. In total, the planted areas still represent 87% of the 1994 levels[81]. Economically the country achieved a growth rate of 6.6% in the

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Popular Music and Lyrics in the 1950’s and Today Essay

Music has been known to express ideas in human emotion; music can be a release from the hectic world. But people in the 50’s did not sit back and relax to the sound of â€Å"Feel It N*gga† by 50 cent. In fact, the type of songs that 50 cent sings is far from what people in the 50’s used to listen to. Even though some elements of music haven’t changed such as pace and sentimentality in love songs, many styles of music have evolved into more aggressive lyrics and/or very explicit and vulgar wording to fit some American cultures in the year 2006. Words like â€Å"nigger†, the involvement of sexual intercourse, and the presence of violence has manifested itself into songs today, unlike the older musical generation. One of the very little unchanged aspects of music is the pace of love songs. Love songs have two kinds of pace: fast and slow. An example of a fast paced song in the 50’s is the song by The Platters, â€Å"The Magic Touch†. This song combined the thrill of love and a fast catchy pace. This ingenious aspect is also apparent in the song by Vanessa Carlton, â€Å"A Thousand Miles†. The pace for this song is even faster than â€Å"The Magic Touch† and it is seasoned with the playing of the violin, the second fastest played instrument known to man. Another bridge between the 50’s and today is the slow pace in other love songs. In the 50’s, â€Å"Only You† by the Righteous Brothers, the pace is slow. This is evident due to the chord put in C minor which is a line of successive notes that are use as a calming remedy. In Celine Dion’s song â€Å"My Heart Will Go On†, she prolongs the final notes in order to slow the pace. The use of the flute which calms or soothes the melody of the song also aids in the slowing of the pace or tempo. Although there are some similarities the differences out-weigh them by a great deal. In the 50’s, aggression was never used in song; it would be banned by the church and labeled as songs of the devil, because of the religious innocence in that time period. It would also be banned by the government because it did not uplift the mood and morale of the veterans who had suffered mentally and physically in World War II. On the other hand, today aggression is greatly used in many examples of music, such as DMX’s previous song â€Å"Blood of my Blood†, where he uses the quote â€Å"whitey wants die why you wanna try â€Å". This quote is aggression directed at white Americans  due to the racial discrimination in the past. One of the few similarities in music from the 50’s and the music today is the sentimentality in love songs. In the song by the Righteous Brothers â€Å"Only you†, it is very sentimental; it signifies the singer’s untold love to someone. The words â€Å"Only you can make this world seem right† explain the extreme sentimental feelings for that person because of the over romanticized imagery. Today we also have very sentimental songs such as the musical number by Mariah Carey â€Å"Life Ain’t Worth Liven Without You†. Here even the title of the song is enough to show the sentimentality that is expressed in this song. Finally, one important difference is censorship. In the 50’s it was impossible to find a song with explicit language, but today, songs are crammed with provocative language and subjects that can be offensive to many people. For example, the lyrics by Ludicrous in his song the 411 † I got h*s in different area codes â€Å"or in the song â€Å"Colt 45†³ by Afroman stating† I got a box o weed and a bottle of wine I’m gonna f*ck This b*tch just one more time†. Such profane language would never have been used in the 50’s. One would notice that there are more women’s rights today than in the 50’s, yet such profanity, which may be viewed as offensive in a feminist point of view, is still sold today. In conclusion, the musical styles and rudiments of North American music have been vastly changed to reflect some aspects of U.S society today. Musical aspects such as pace and sentimentality in love songs may not have changed; however, many styles of music, in comparison to the 50’s, have evolved into more aggressive or vulgar lyrics. Simple fast tempo music can no longer elevate the mood of the majority, and the vast differences will only change even more in the years to come. In the 50’s a simple â€Å"AWAP BA DA LU BOP A WAM BAM BOOM† was the essence of music that was â€Å"hip† .Today, very large amplifiers are used to magnify the sounds of â€Å"cool† lyrics.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Frida Kahlo

* NAME : ABDUL RAHMAN BIN MOHAMED * GROUP : 12M13 * TOPIC : READING 1 – FRIDA KAHLO : TRIUMPH OVER TRAGEDY DISCUSSION QUESTIONS QUESTION 1: How do you think painting help Frida Kahlo with her problem? ANSWER: From my view of humanisation, painting helps Frida Kahlo so much. It is because only from painting will make her continues her hope about her life after turning point of her life made her really uncapable to do anything else such as to be one of the successful doctor only building the castle in the air. From her painting make her more sensitive in so many things. As we know, Frida expressed her feeling by that creative way teaches the other on how to take care of other feeling beside appreciate them. Frida`s painting resolve by hidden message on how to try our best not to be heartbreaker or make a hole of sadness in someone heart as her told that she had experienced second accident in her life with her beloved husband. Of course these single moment will be portrayed by frida to make sure every moments will not forgetable. Lasty, she got place in every one`s heart by her painting and became well-known. QUESTION 2: Many of Kahlo’s paintings express pain and tragedy. Do you like to see this in a work of art? If so, why? If not, what would you like to see? ANSWER: I really don`t like that kinds of painting that reminds me of someone that I hate so much. I would prefer some of the painting that shows love. Love painting is about something unique. Not every painter success to portray those kinds of painting. Painting is one of the medium to change other people and influenced their way of life. That’s why love theme painting make us kindly shares our love and open our minds to shares our heart together. Love also not just limited to human, but also can be animal, family and the others. This unique kind of painting can resolve life of communities that full of hatred, selfish to the very good mankind ever seen in the world. QUESTION 3: What is your opinion of the mischievous acts carried out by Cachuchas? Why they did they do these things? Was their behaviour acceptable? Why or why not? ANSWER: From my opinion, the action carried out by Cachuchas is just to make everybody sense of their presence in school and they want to become attractive in their way so everybody who watch them will follow their style including the nerd (unpopular in school). Other than that, QUESTION 4: Is it important to know about an artist`s life in order to understand his or her work? ANSWER: Yes. It is important to know about an artist`s life as from their life we can learn what are messages about from the painting. In consequences, we will be become more sharp observer and understand more about painting and art. As we take example, one of the most famous person during renaissances was Leonardo Da Vincci. He was the one who like to do his painting in realist style such as Mona Lisa portrait. No other painter has been able to express the facial subtleties of the human character with such startling accuracy. Some people wonder why it is that her facial expression seems to change depending on the direction from which you look at her. This is because during painting of Mona Lisa, Leonardo hired a few of clowns to make her happy and not get bored. That`s how Leonardo manipulate the situation. This example shows us clearly why we need to understand extra information about artist’s life and history of his painting. Frida Kahlo * NAME : ABDUL RAHMAN BIN MOHAMED * GROUP : 12M13 * TOPIC : READING 1 – FRIDA KAHLO : TRIUMPH OVER TRAGEDY DISCUSSION QUESTIONS QUESTION 1: How do you think painting help Frida Kahlo with her problem? ANSWER: From my view of humanisation, painting helps Frida Kahlo so much. It is because only from painting will make her continues her hope about her life after turning point of her life made her really uncapable to do anything else such as to be one of the successful doctor only building the castle in the air. From her painting make her more sensitive in so many things. As we know, Frida expressed her feeling by that creative way teaches the other on how to take care of other feeling beside appreciate them. Frida`s painting resolve by hidden message on how to try our best not to be heartbreaker or make a hole of sadness in someone heart as her told that she had experienced second accident in her life with her beloved husband. Of course these single moment will be portrayed by frida to make sure every moments will not forgetable. Lasty, she got place in every one`s heart by her painting and became well-known. QUESTION 2: Many of Kahlo’s paintings express pain and tragedy. Do you like to see this in a work of art? If so, why? If not, what would you like to see? ANSWER: I really don`t like that kinds of painting that reminds me of someone that I hate so much. I would prefer some of the painting that shows love. Love painting is about something unique. Not every painter success to portray those kinds of painting. Painting is one of the medium to change other people and influenced their way of life. That’s why love theme painting make us kindly shares our love and open our minds to shares our heart together. Love also not just limited to human, but also can be animal, family and the others. This unique kind of painting can resolve life of communities that full of hatred, selfish to the very good mankind ever seen in the world. QUESTION 3: What is your opinion of the mischievous acts carried out by Cachuchas? Why they did they do these things? Was their behaviour acceptable? Why or why not? ANSWER: From my opinion, the action carried out by Cachuchas is just to make everybody sense of their presence in school and they want to become attractive in their way so everybody who watch them will follow their style including the nerd (unpopular in school). Other than that, QUESTION 4: Is it important to know about an artist`s life in order to understand his or her work? ANSWER: Yes. It is important to know about an artist`s life as from their life we can learn what are messages about from the painting. In consequences, we will be become more sharp observer and understand more about painting and art. As we take example, one of the most famous person during renaissances was Leonardo Da Vincci. He was the one who like to do his painting in realist style such as Mona Lisa portrait. No other painter has been able to express the facial subtleties of the human character with such startling accuracy. Some people wonder why it is that her facial expression seems to change depending on the direction from which you look at her. This is because during painting of Mona Lisa, Leonardo hired a few of clowns to make her happy and not get bored. That`s how Leonardo manipulate the situation. This example shows us clearly why we need to understand extra information about artist’s life and history of his painting. Frida kahlo The Art of Friday Kohl: Realist and Overwhelming The autobiographical movie â€Å"Friday† directed by Julie Tomato and release in October, 2002. It is a realistic portrait of the life of Mexican painter Friday Kohl and her life's bitterness, her political believes, and the tormented relationship with her painter husband, Diego Riviera. As a result the motive of her artworks is basically in self- portraits. Friday's personality projects to be a liberal, passionate, independent, strong, and charming woman.She was an eminent artist in the 20th century who exposes angular exceptional thoughts ahead of her time; as a result, many people consider her as feminist although there is a little controversy about this. Magdalene Carmen Friday Kohl y Cauldron, known as Friday Kohl, was born July 6, 1907 in Accompany, Mexico City, Mexico. She died July 13, 1954 in the same place that she was born. She suffered poliomyelitis at the age of six, and at age eighteen, she was a victim of a tragic bus accident which resulted nine surgeries that left her with constant pain and infertility.However, her strength made her replace her agony with art. While she was in bed for recovery, her mom gave her a mirror to see herself. Therefore, through her paintings, we can feel her pain and sensibility. For instance, in one self-portrait â€Å"The Broken Columns† dressed in a metal corset, she painted in a surrealistic way because she was almost naked with nails in her whole body. She is crying; perhaps, we can imagine the dimension of the pain, but she knew what the pain truly was (Sayers).Friday had been damaged for the life by illness and the bus accident, but the last injury was from Diego Riviera, her husband, who Just brought emotional disturbance which lasted until her death. She loved him passionately and obsessively, so she endured his many infidelities including with her sister, Christina. However, she also had many affairs not only with men but also with women. Having a liberal personality, Friday was never committed to social norms; thus her behavior was consequent with her identity and freedom. Even more, she was always inspired by love for her country, dressing in Mexican native gowns.Besides, the political struggle as consequence of 30 years under the government of Portfolio Ditz, a rebellion environment, the Mexican Revolution, and the Mexican constitution surrounded Friday when she was growing up. Therefore, she acquired a social consciousness, identified with the Communist Party. Also, she took the risk of hiding Leon Trotsky, the revolutionary Marxist activist against Stalin, in her house having an affair with him during that time (Hearer). As a feminist, Friday is considered an idol precisely for her personality.She never cares about superficial elements to get attention. She assumed her identity with plenty of liberty, and never suppressed her inclination to be bisexual. Today, many women admire her because she acted at that time as a c ontemporary woman in the criterion of being a feminist. However, there is a controversy about this because her emotional dependence on Diego has been questionable. She was completely independent, having her own style in her work. Perhaps, she had great and unusual capacity to love that not everybody could understand.In addition, Friday has been an inspiration for many writers, directors, and Journalists to write about her (Gunderson). Her self-portraits reflect the reality of one life with all the experiences, suffering, pain, tradition and history, with bright colors, so these things captivate the hearts of women and men. Friday had the first exhibition of her work a year before her death, and she was well known as an artist. Her true fame began in 1978, with public presentations around the world of her artwork, recognizing her as one of the best painters not only in Mexico but also in the roll.In fact, we can find Friday's paintings at the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York), an d one of her portraits was sold to Soothers a British multinational corporation, for nearly 1. 5 million dollars, being one of the biggest prices paid at a bidding for a Latin American artwork (Sayers). Ironically, her fate was not the enjoyment of all the values that she had, such as an artist, but Friday is a legacy of art, history, and humanity. Her work is biographic, full of passion, and she reflects the bitterness of life for what today we identified with her beautiful mind. Frida Kahlo Friday Kohl (1907-1954) was a Mexican artist who grew up during the Mexican Revolution, a time of great social and economic change. There was a strong sense of nationalistic pride during this time, which is evident in her later works. During childhood, Kohl had polio, this affected her growth and development. Furthermore, she was involved in a bus accident later in her life, which damaged her spine and was extremely traumatic in her mental processes. Because of this, she had ongoing surgery throughout her life, and, was in constant pain.However, after this accident, she began painting to express herself. As a result of her accident, she suffered numerous miscarriages and was unable to have children – an issue she explores in her 1932 work ?Henry Ford Hospital]. Kohl was an active participant in the social and political landscape of Mexico, and used artworks to express her social and political views, as well as themes of her physical pain and contain, cultural background and my thology, and Mexican traditions through her dress, layout, and symbolism.Particularly evident in ?Lass Dos Fridays, history and culture are shown to be an incredibly influential and important aspect of Friday's mindset and views on life ND her own personal and cultural identity. Lass Dos Fridays is one of Kohl's largest works at approximately 68 x 68 inches in size. L It is a departure from the retable format she frequently used, reflecting Kohl's desire for her work to be noticed at the Surrealist exhibition for which it was intended. 2 Two monumental, full length representations of the artist are seated side-by-side on a simple green bench, gently holding hands.Behind them, dark, Jagged clouds blanket the sky, eliminating any specific sense of place. The two figures are linked by a shared circulatory system which pumps blood between their exposed hearts. The figure on the left uses a clamp in an attempt to stanch the flow of blood falling on her stiff white gown. 3 As the blood po ols in the folds of her dress, it spills over and falls onto the hem of her skirt in uniform, circular droplets. The shape of the falling droplets of blood mimics, both in color and shape, the embroidered floral pattern which adorns the bottom of her skirt.This antiquated frock with an elaborately decorated lace bodice covers the majority of the figure's body with the exception of her forearms and her left breast, which is exposed by an irregularly formed void in the garment. 4 Significantly, the lack of Jose thread and the absence of the excess fabric that would have been produced had her garment been forcibly ripped open suggests a less violent, perhaps voluntary, method of exposure. Adjacent to the figure's heart, the lace bodice is interrupted by a cutout which provides a view of the white under-layer supporting the lacework.This oblong cutout, bordered by ribbon and topped with an intricate knot of hair-like fabric, references the female anatomy. The figure's demure posture and vividly painted red lips convey a sense of femininity which is repeated in her elaborate gown. Her heart is embedded in her body, a part of her self, whereas the earth of the figure on the right seems to float, affixed to her gown but not to her body. Furthermore, the heart of the portrait on the left has been surgically dissected to reveal its inner-workings while the heart of the figure on the right is intact.The two figures are connected by an elongated artery which wraps around the European Kohl's neck, contrasting the white lace of her gown with the deep red of her own blood. The self-portrait on the right exudes a much more masculine aura than her companion; her lips are unpainted and the slightest shadow of a mustache darkens her upper lip. Additionally, her spread knees and slightly curved back suggest a more relaxed, less demure, pose. The masculine elements of the portrait on the right are complicated by the way in which the thin fabric of her blouse clings to her breasts , highlighting their outline and affirming her femaleness.She is clothed in the Tenant dress native to the Isthmus of Authentic, home to a traditionally matriarchal society known for the strength and independence of its indigenous female residents. 5 The white hem of the Tenant Kohl's dress is embroidered with a white-on-white floral pattern that mimics the vivid red flowers of the European own, symbolically connecting the two figures and reminding the viewer that the blood dripping on the white gown comes from the bodies of both figures due to their shared circulatory system. While the vascular system of the figure on the left is completely exposed and travels across the surface of her gown, the main artery of the figure on the right disappears under the shoulder of her blouse, reappearing as it wraps around her arm. The Tenant Kohl is penetrated by the artery leading from her heart to the medallion held in her right hand. This artery culminates in an image of Riviera as a child wh ich Kohl delicately holds near her womb. Alternatively, the cylindrical shape of the medallion and the positioning of Kohl's hand suggests a vulgar masculine gesture, reiterating the androgynous nature of the Tenant Kohl.In spite of their many differences, the two Kohl's are inextricably linked, not only due to their role as multiple facets of the artist's identity but by their interlocking hands, the continuity of the hems of their gowns, and their shared circulatory system. This symbiotic relationship reiterates the unity of these two figures, not as conflicting elements of Kohl's identity, but as the visual expression of al facets of one complex whole. Lass Dos Fridays serves as a depiction of the multiple facets of Kohl's identity which span centuries of Mexican history.Kohl's use of elements drawn from throughout Mexican history forges a sense of unity that encompasses Mexico pre-Columbian, Colonial, and Revolutionary past. Thus, rather than dichotomies, Lass Dos Fridays embodi es the unity of seemingly incompatible parts which express Kohl's conceptualization of Mexico and her personal identity as it related to the history of her country. Because Kohl's father was German and her mother was Indian, Lass Dos Fridays can e interpreted as a visualization of her mixed European/Mexican heritage. The concept of the Colonial is of particular importance.As a product of the European colonization of Mexico, Kohl literally embodies both the colonizer and the colonized. In Lass Dos Fridays, Kohl uses a lacy, white and characteristically European or American gown to represent outside influence in Mexico. In addition to her mixed heritage, Kohl quite literally utilized her self-portraiture, especially manipulations of costume, to transform herself into a representation of Mexican history and identity. Kohl's manipulation of Mexican tradition to comment on contemporary politics is exemplified by her appropriation of La Lorena in Henry Ford Hospital, 1932 (fig.AY). In thi s self-portrait, Kohl depicts the aftermath of the abortion of her most recent pregnancy. The popular perception of Kohl's views on motherhood assert that, ?she lived as well with a yearning for a child she could never have?her smashed pelvis led only to miscarriages and at least three therapeutic abortions. 126 This traditional view does not account for the fact that Kohl herself requested an abortion and voluntarily ingested castor oil in the hope of ending her 1932 pregnancy. Henry Ford Hospital is a self portrait of a crying Kohl, laying naked and disheveled on a hospital bed following her 1932 abortion at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. Her bed rests at a precarious angle, situated in a vast expanse of barren land, possibly a reference to the loneliness a Mexican woman felt who rejected deeply embedded cultural norms about womanhood and motherhood. 30 In the background, Kohl added a skyline reminiscent of the River Rouge Plant in Detroit, calling to mind the role of the fem ale body as a site dedicated to the production of children. Placing herself against a stark white sheet soaked in her own blood, Kohl included prominent tears rolling down her face. These tears are the most straightforward link between Kohl and La Lorena. ! In depicting herself as La Lorena, Kohl utilized the power of folklore to address social issues far beyond the scope of her personal angst. She appropriated a cultural symbol as a direct commentary on societal norms and their restrictive nature regarding women and their ability to control reproduction.In Henry Ford Hospital, Kohl explicitly challenges the dichotomy of the virgin and the here that categorizes women as either good or bad mothers. 32 This dichotomy leaves little freedom for women to exist between these two extremes and is clearly tailored to the preservation of male power. Kohl does present herself in a vulnerable state, but her brazen depiction of her disregard cultural norms which equated womanhood to motherhood r eferences the powerful Micronesian goddesses rather than the violated Lorena.In depicting herself as La Lorena, Kohl lays the groundwork for Chicane artists to redefine the role of women in these cultures without abandoning their three mother figures, La Lorena, La Virgin De Guadalupe, and La Mainline. Henry Ford Hospital challenged cultural norms concerning womanhood and allowed Kohl to publicly address issues she was otherwise unwilling to discuss. Through her art, Friday lived this different reality, announcing that giving birth to the other within us is where ‘who we are' begins. 4 Self-proclaimed as the one who gave birth to herself' (Feints, 1995, plate 49), Friday Kohl painted her own reality; reclaiming it, reflecting it and repeatedly re-living it. A performer of gender roles, unabashedly excessive in femininity as well as masculinity, and an intimate lover of both women and men, she painted narratives ND wrote images that exploit the creative tensions concealed and c ompelled by oppositional rationale. Boldly confronting the thorny imperative of subjectivity, she embraced her heterogeneous marginality as a valuable political standpoint as well as an innovative personal imperative.Her works re-activate identities as assemblages of dynamic and incomplete parts operating in the various cultural contexts that partially produce and are produced by the subjects who inhabit and perform them. Perhaps most compellingly of all, though, her arresting gaze fixes the viewer, unsettling the assumed division between the bile viewing subject and its inert viewed object, and returning the viewer's scrutiny towards a consideration of how, and with what effects, identity and marginality are normatively dealt with and reconciled.Hybrid of race, sex, gender and sexuality coalesce in Friday's work to disrupt cogently the paradigm of sameness versus difference that has historically elided dissident identities. Her paintings, which negotiate the intricate tensions betw een identity and marginality, situate her ‘in between'. A curious artist and committed idealist, she painted magic with a realist brush, and in so doing dealt with difference differently. Frida Kahlo While scrolling through a list of Friday Kohl's artwork, I stumbled upon her painting titled Henry Ford Hospital. The thumbnail alone Jumped off of the screen and caught my eye. I was immediately pulled in by the beauty of the female figure lying nude on a hospital bed. Upon further inspection of the image, it became quite clear which aspects of this piece I gravitated towards and why. The image is a painful self-portrait surrounding the experience of Friday's second miscarriage.While I can not relate to the tragedy of losing a wanted fetus, I can strongly relate to the grief experienced during and after the expulsion of one's womb. In this piece, Friday has painted herself on a hospital bed with a pool of blood surrounding her and a somewhat contorted body. Her legs and pelvis are twisted away from the viewer, suggesting her discomfort or perhaps even shame. She has her hands cradling her still bloated belly with what appear to be six different umbilical cords leading to different s ymbolic objects.Attached to the umbilical cords are the fetus, a snail, a dying orchid, a medical machine, a human pelvis, and the sidewise of diagram depicting the female anatomy. The fetus is that of her would-be sons Disguise, or â€Å"Little Diego' (her husband's name). The snail is thought to be representative of her painfully slow delivery of a dead baby. The single orchid, which is said to be a real orchid that her husband gave her, has long been viewed as a symbol of love, strength, and sexuality. The medical machine pictured, to me, seems to be a symbol of the cold and sometimes robotic process of any medical procedure.The final two items connected to Friday's abdomen, the diagram of the female body and a pelvic bone, portray an awareness of what this second miscarriage meaner hectically for her body. In the background of the image, we see the many industrial buildings of Detroit, where Friday was at the time of the miscarriage. In 1925, Friday Kohl was involved in a terri ble bus accident which left her with a broken pelvis, a broken spinal column, and various other injuries. Friday was told she would most likely never be able to have children. In 1929 she married Diego Riviera and soon she became pregnant. This original pregnancy ended in abortion.Due to her because previously broken pelvis, the fetus was positioned incorrectly which was risk to both Friday and the child. By the time her second pregnancy occurred in 1932, it was clear to Friday that Diego had not wanted children. In an attempt to abort the child, she had unsuccessfully taken quinine. Realizing her failure to terminate Friday chose to continue with the pregnancy. Three and half months pregnant, Friday was admitted to the hospital with severe hemorrhaging and eventually suffered a miscarriage. This painting was created very soon after a traumatic event that made her realize that she could never carry a pregnancy to term. Frida Kahlo The documentary talked about the Mexican painter Friday Kohl who was best known for her unique series of self-portraits. I knew about her artwork and was quite amazed by her way of portraying self-portraits in an extraordinary expression before I watched this documentary. After watching the video, I understand more about the reasons why her painting was done this way. Her artworks brought the pieces of her life stories to the audience. Her marriage with Diego Riviera contributes the later works of her. It was the main influence of her life.If she did not meet Diego Riviera, e would probably see a total Friday Kohl. The complicated relationship from inability of reproduction, Dies unfaithfulness, Kohl's affairs, divorce to remarriage created the Kohl who was physically and emotionally torn. She expressed her life problems in her paintings, her tragic and exotic figures brand her personal art career. However the important event in her life was the undergo of the miscarriage and abortio n. It portrayed the painful personal of Kohl that reflected in the emotional disorder of her artwork.Kohl wanted a child very much, her nightmares ND thoughts about fertility was shown. The fertility dream is the part which I like most about the documentary. It portrays a woman's struggle and pain for losing the ability to have a baby, the heart wrenching when you wish for a child of you and your loves one but you have lost the reproductive system ability. The artwork Henry Ford Hospital (The Flying Bed) provokes the emotions in us. I would also think that this painting attract the attention the issue on fertility, at the same time encourage the public to take care of their reproductive health.It would make a different influence to Kohl's career if she was not living in Mexico. In her paintings, a strong indigenous Mexican culture was shown in the use of intense color and primitive style. She also wore traditional indigenous clothing of Mexico as shown in her paintings. If she was l iving in Europe or America, the colors she used and costumes will most probably reflect the scene of the country instead. The humming birds and monkey painted are animals in Mexican mythology. The folk cultural content will disappear and she will robbery express her self-portrait in another way.I am surprised by the Mexicans attitude to death in the documentary. The way they took death in a celebration manner shocked me. She even painted a dead child and put in on top of her bed. Collection of skeleton in her house showed her close association with death, either death of children or the death itself. I do not agree with Andre Bretons description of Kohl's work as surrealist. Friday Kohl painted her own stories, she did not paint dreams. The dream-like fantasy atmosphere she painted is a metaphor to her own life.Her pain and Joy were represented by elements that are irrational and imaginary. They were all what she had been through, but not dream. In my point of view, Friday Kohl was an amazing independent artist. In response to her tragic life, she painted. She triumphed over her life problems by her own strength and self- determination. Painting the reality helped in expressing her pain and tears, a way of releasing perhaps helped in easing her suffering process. She revealed her life in art and this has helped to address the issues to the public that serves as a reminder and encouragement.