Saturday, August 31, 2019
1. What signs and symptoms did Greg exhibit when he was in the house? Some signs and symptoms Greg experienced were thirst, dizziness, and turgor. 2. Was Mrs. Myron correct when she said that Greg was dehydrated? Which signs and symptoms are consistent with this notion? Mrs. Myron thought that it was not necessary to seek medical treatment. Do you think she was correct? I believe Mrs. Myron was correct when she said Greg was dehydrated. All his signs and symptoms are symptoms of dehydration. I would probably have taken him to the hospital because he passed out and continues to do so, another factor would have been his temperature. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve Fallen Over and I CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Get Up: Part IIÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ The High School Football GameÃ¢â¬ Questions 1. What were GregÃ¢â¬â¢s signs and symptoms before the game and during the warm up? Can you think of any reasons why Greg exhibited these signs and symptoms? Before the game and during warm up Greg experienced dizziness, loss of appetite, flushed, and sweaty. Greg may be experiencing dehydration. 2. Greg is taken to the hospital after being injured during the game. What problems do you think the physicians will find with Greg when they examine him, or do you think he is only suffering from dehydration? Greg has probably experienced a concussion from the hit he took. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve Fallen Over and I CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Get Up: Part IIIÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ The Next Day In The HospitalÃ¢â¬ Questions 1. What are GregÃ¢â¬â¢s new signs and symptoms? Do you have a diagnosis for GregÃ¢â¬â¢s problem? Greg is now feeling nauseous, weak, and has a headache. I think he has a concussion. 2. The chart below shows that when baroreceptors detect a drop in arterialÃ blood pressure the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the heart and the smooth muscles in the walls of the arteries and the veins. Write increase or decrease to indicate the effect of the sympathetic nervous system on the variable in each numbered box. (3 points) IÃ¢â¬â¢ve Fallen Over and I CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Get Up: Part IVÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ The NeurologistÃ¢â¬ Questions 1. What evidence suggests that Greg suffered from a mild concussion? Greg feels nauseous, weak, and has a headache which indicates a concussion. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve Fallen Over and I CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Get Up: Part VÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ The Follow-Up VisitÃ¢â¬ Questions 1. What is the relative position between the heart and the head (or baroreceptors in the carotid sinus) when you are lying down? What is the relative position between the heart and the head (or baroreceptors in the carotid sinus) when you are standing? What happens to the pressure of the blood as it travels against gravity in a standing person? When you are lying on your back, blood is able to flow more easily. If you move from a seated or supine position to a standing position, there may be a momentary drop in your blood pressure, baroreceptors sense this drop and signal the heart to beat faster. 2. The baroreceptor reflex insures that the pressure of the blood entering the brain remains within defined limits, irrespective of body position. Under these circumstances, predict the blood pressure in the aorta of a standing person and a person who is lying flat on their back. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve Fallen Over and I CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Get Up: Part VIÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ The DiagnosisÃ¢â¬ Questions 1. How would a pacemaker help GregÃ¢â¬â¢s condition?Ã It would keep his heart rate at more of a steady pace. 2. If a pacemaker is implanted to control GregÃ¢â¬â¢s heart rate, what life changes will be forced upon him? Do you think Greg will ever play competitive sports again? I do not think it is recommended he playÃ competitive sports. He will have to watch his physical activity and not want to exert himself too much. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Resistance Is FutileÃ¢â¬ ¦Or Is It?: Part IÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ HIV and the Immune SystemÃ¢â¬ Questions 1. What is the difference in how a virus and bacteria replicate and affect cells of the body? Viruses cannot replicate without infecting a living cell. Unlike bacteria, that have everything it needs to reproduce, viruses need to use a living cellÃ¢â¬â¢s organelles in order to replicate. 2. In general, how does humoral and cellular immunity differ? Cellular immunity does not involve antibodies and humoral does. 3. Understanding that HIV is a retrovirus (a virus that uses reverse transcriptase), answer the following questions: a. What is reverse transcriptase? Transcriptase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of DNA from an RNA template in reverse transcription. b. How is a retrovirus different from other viruses? A retrovirus composed of DNA and RNA virus with the most complex replication, so it is different from a regular virus. c. How does a retrovirus infect a cell and reproduce? On encountering a host cell, the retrovirus attaches itself to receptors on the surface of the host cellÃ¢â¬â¢s membrane. Once inside the cell, the capsid opens, releasing RNA and reverse transcriptase into the cellÃ¢â¬â¢s cytoplasm. 4. In regards to reviewing the immune system, answer the following questions: a. What is the difference between a T-cell and B-cell? B-cells mature in bone marrow; T-cells mature in the thymus. b. What is the difference between innate immune response and adaptive immune response? Innate immunity refers to nonspecific defense mechanisms that come into play immediately or within hours of an antigenÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance in the body. Adaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response. The adaptive immune response is more complex than the innate. 5. In regards to the immune system and HIV, answer the following questions: a. Individuals with HIV commonly die from pneumonia or cancer. Why is this the case? HIV lowers your immune system so other diseases or sicknesses can often be deadly because the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s immune system is so weak. A Case of Pharyngitis: Part IÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ The Little BoyÃ¢â¬ Questions 1. The pediatrician described JasonÃ¢â¬â¢s pharynx, uvula, and tonsils as swollen and red. What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation, and how does each relate to changes in the blood vessels at a site of inflammation? Signs of inflammation are redness, swelling, heat, and pain. The blood vessels encounter vasodilation. 2. The exudate on JasonÃ¢â¬â¢s tonsils consisted primarily of neutrophils, and the CBC that was performed indicated that the number of neutrophils in his circulation was increased. What role do neutrophils play in the resolution of a bacterial infection? What role do macrophages have within fighting infections? Neutrophils are attracted to the site of infection by chemotaxis. They are able to phagocytize and digest pathogens. 3. JasonÃ¢â¬â¢s physician noted that JasonÃ¢â¬â¢s cervical lymph nodes were enlarged, a condition referred to as lymphadenopathy. Describe the structure and function(s) of lymph nodes, and list the other organs and tissues that comprise the lymphatic system. The lymph nodes are small bean shaped glands. They act as filters that sieve off the harmful substances brought by the lymphatic channels. Bone marrow, thymus, spleen, MALT, BALT 4. What can trigger a fever and what are its benefits in terms of combating an infection? Infections can trigger a fever, which can be beneficial to try to kill the infection.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Why do we (as a society) need a criminal justice system? Introduction As a society there is need for a criminal justice system, as it is essential to have laws throughout the population. We have these laws so people cannot use money or power to benefit themselves. The laws also establish that each person should understand their and everyone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and obligations within the community. The criminal justice system, is a system of laws and rulings which protect community members and their property. Therefore, the laws determine which acts are criminal and how the offender is punished. (Sallmann, P. nd Wills, J. 1984 Criminal Justice in Australia, Oxford University Press, Melbourne. ) The criminal justice system in Australia formed centuries ago, with new forms of punishments added along the way. From then till now Australian judges have interpreted, applied and developed these laws, the Australian parliaments have also added to them through legislation. (Sallmann, P. and W ills, J. 1984 Criminal Justice in Australia, Oxford University Press, Melbourne. ) Why we need a criminal justice system There are three main divisions in criminal justice system, which exists of Police, Courts, and Corrections. Firstly, Police have the responsibility to investigate and apprehend criminals. Secondly, Courts are responsible for fair trial and sentencing. Thirdly, Corrections are responsible for imprisonment and supervision. The main purpose of this system is to manage public safety. In Australia we have nine legal systems, comprising eight State or Territory systems and one federal system. Most of the administration of courts, the legal profession and legislation occurs in the States and Territories. Therefore, each State and Territory is responsible to carry out the laws and rulings for the criminal justice system. Attorney-General's Department (AGD) 1995, The Justice Statement, AGD, Canberra. ) The criminal justice system's goals are to ensure that legislation and the law is upheld at all times. For example, protecting the innocent, punishing the guilty, preserving order and peace and protecting victims from further anguish. Another goal the criminal justice system seems to be focusing on i s education for the public regarding crime and rehabilitation of offenders. This method is achieved by deterring offenders or preventing crimes from spreading. Therefore, the goals of the criminal justice system are to balance criminal activity and crime revention. There is an abundance of people, who think the criminal justice system is not really a system, and that it has always been flawed. It fails to deliver true justice and is expensive and incompetent in determining cases. On the other hand there are many people who firmly defend the system against such criticism, viewing it as only needing little change. As always, the truth lies somewhere in between the two arguments. The criminal justice system is subject to continual criticism. Many of its qualities, such as the wearing of gowns and wigs, are seen to imitate a system which is outdated, hiding in old traditions and rocedures and out of touch with the society of today. As a society we need to understand that the police alon e canÃ¢â¬â¢t overcome all crimes therefore, it canÃ¢â¬â¢t deal with every criminal. The criminal justice system introduced community based programs and institutions to help build safer communities. Examples of these programs and institutions are, Neighbourhood Watch and Community Corrections. Firstly, Neighbourhood Watch is a community based program, which aims to minimise crime within the community. This program requires both the community and the police working together to accomplish his goal. (Neighbourhood Watch, http://www. nhw. com. au/Home) Secondly, Community Corrections is an institution which manages and supervises offenders on community based supervision orders such as Probation, Parole, Home Detention, Community Work and Bail. This institution requires the community, Courts and the Parole Board to all work together, to achieve the optimum result. (Community Corrections http://www. nt. gov. au/justice/corrservices/community_corrections/index. shtml) The criminal justi ce system is a complex social tree, the branches of this tree combine social and economic causes. It is often these other causes that determine the crimes committed and the response of the criminal justice system. These creators of crime can be sorted into two main groups: environmental risk factors and individual risk factors. Environmental risk factors include the physical, social, family, community, economic, cultural and political environments in which an individual lives For example, higher rates of unemployment can have an impact on levels of crime, which in turn will affect all sectors of the criminal justice system. Individual risk factors include mental and physical health status, demographic and ocioeconomic characteristics, attitudes and beliefs, and lifestyles and behaviour. These individual risk factors must also be considered when looking at the broader context of the criminal justice systems. (The National Criminal Justice Statistical Framework, Jul 2001. ) Various researches have addressed different outlooks to explain why some people have a criminal tendency. Exa mples of these outlooks are by Cesare Lombroso and Sigmund Freud. Firstly, Lombroso states that criminals have stigmata, and that these stigmata consist of abnormal dimensions of the skull and jaw. Lombroso even claimed that different criminals have different physical characteristics which he could discern. (Cesare Lombroso. (2009). Secondly, Sigmund Freud hypothesized that the most common element that contributed to criminal behaviour was faulty identification by a child with her or his parents. The improperly socialized child may develop a personality disturbance that causes her or him to direct antisocial impulses inward or outward. The child who directs them outward becomes a criminal, and the child that directs them inward becomes a neurotic. (Sigmund Freud (1961). Conclusion For a society to work it needs to have a level of structure, that is applied and understood by everyone. Laws within the criminal justice system create that structure and regulate the way in which people and organisations behave. If we did not have a criminal justice system, there would be a lot of chaos, within the systems of management and crime control. Therefore, if there is no threat for punishment, the level of crime within the society could be quiet high. The major goals in criminal justice tend to be creating a helping hand in reducing crime, through bringing major offences to justice, or raising the communities confidence. Along with others the justice system works towards preventing crime or helping offenders turn away from committing a crime. (Goldsmith, Israel and Daly 2006) Therefore, the criminal justice system is to create balance throughout society. We as a society need this system, to protect people within our communities from crime and preventing crime. Is the system fair? No. But the criminal justice system can only be as fair as human beings are capable of making it. References 1. Sallmann, P. and Wills, J. 1984 Criminal Justice in Australia, Oxford University Press, Melbourne. 2. Attorney-General's Department (AGD) 1995, The Justice Statement, AGD, Canberra. 3. (Neighbourhood Watch, http://www. nhw. com. au/Home) 4. (Community Corrections http://www. nt. gov. au/justice/corrservices/community _corrections/index. shtml) 5. The National Criminal Justice Statistical Framework, Jul 2001. 6. Cesare Lombroso. (2009). New World Encyclopaedia. 7. Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth. 8. Goldsmith, Israel and Daly 2006, Crime and Justice: An Australian Textbook in Criminology (3rd Edition) Sydney: Lawbook Company. Why Do We as a Society Need a Criminal Justice System? WHY DO WE AS A SOCIETY NEED A CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM? Introduction The criminal justice system is comprised of a basic formation, the law enforcement agencies, the courts, and the correctional services. This system has existed since ancient times and although the three facilities havenÃ¢â¬â¢t completely been replaced over the centuries, there has been a lot of change and amendment to how the system is used to investigate, deter, and keep order and control in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. It is a fundamental part of our society and we know that comprehensive, effective, and nondiscriminatory implementation of criminal justice system powers is essential to ending violence, both for freeing individual and for ending the worldwide epidemic of violence against one another. Although the system has evolved over the years to adjust and accommodate people of different status, class and provide a multicultural aspect to society, just as any other system there will always be some impediments and inconsistencies such as, financial restraints, inequality, selective law enforcement and public influence such as media ideas and images of crime. Why we need a criminal justice system It would be unrealistic of people in society to believe every crime could be prevented and every criminal caught and incarcerated. Its however not unrealistic to expect to live in a safe society that is provided with equality, fairness, and is reliable and respected. Without the criminal justice system the entire society would disintegrate and it would be overrun with crime and wrong doing. The law enforcement, the courts and the correctional arms of the system each take on a responsibility to follow procedures laid down by the government, who determine what society needs more or less of at any particular time. From the data below (Government expenditure by sector 2004-2005) we can quite clearly see how the criminal justice system has changed in order to meet the needs of society; this is an example of how the government prioritises the needs of society at any particular time. The education sector of the chart is obviously the highest in priority which shows that government is now trying a different perspective as was used years ago by now educating the public and society on how to help prevent crime themselves and teaching parents how to help prevent their children from deviating against them, and becoming another statistic. Coming in second to education is the health expenditure which shows that there is quite a high need for medical and health attention for those that come in contact with the criminal justice system. The government is becoming more aware of the need for chances of rehabilitation for mentally ill and suicidal persons, where these issues are not now seen as a crime but now as a personal issue and the government is now taking it extremely seriously the need for a solution and not punishment to their mental states which may have led them to their criminal ways instead of punishing them for their illness. As we see community services are the next most important thing the government is seeing as a need in the criminal justice system. The law enforcement, courts and correctional facilities only deal with the law and order in society and maintaining social control, but without the community services (Eg: Housing, education, financial services, legal services) the people going into and coming out of the criminal justice system would have nowhere to go for support. The community services is a crucial element to the criminal justice system for the individuals of crime, the families and everyone affected, by providing the additional support needed. The system for punishment has changed many times over the decades the criminal justice system has been around, from corporal punishment (whipping, removing of hands for theft and even execution), to lighter punishments such as community services, probationary periods, and parole for less serious offences to prison terms for more severe offences. The less serious of offences such as vandalism by a juvenile will more than likely obtain a community service punishment to remove or fix the damage caused there by ridding the community of the vandalism and educating the convicted, in turn the convicted is less likely to reoffend. So in most cases such as theft, vandalism, and minor assault cases, if the case is finalised in court by conviction (typically by a defendant's entering a plea of guilty to the offence or to a less serious offence), the defendant may receive a non incarceration sentence such as parole, community service or probation. From this narrowing of cases Daly et al. (2006) p 275 found from a large number experienced by victims to a trickle of defendants convicted and sanctioned has the appearance of a funnel and saves resources and space in prisons and other correctional facilities for the more serious defendants. As the above pie chart (Composition of government expenditure on criminal justice 2006-2007) shows us the police services are at the head position of the overall expenditure of the three arms of the criminal justice system. The government is aware of the vast need for more funds into the policing sector, for the fact this arm is the division that provides the law and order and is out there addressing the issues that are affecting society and apprehending the criminals in, to ensure the criminal justice system continues to function in a fair and equally sufficing way. The police have moved to further advance their policing techniques, from general law enforcement to Ã¢â¬ËCommunity policingÃ¢â¬â¢, which focuses more on Ã¢â¬Ëconciliatory rather than a coercive approach to police workÃ¢â¬â¢, which involves the community and individuals in playing a co-participatory role in the act of crime prevention. In conclusion the overall principle of the criminal justice system is to provide justice for everyone in society and to keep society safe and in order by convicting the criminals and rehabilitating them not to offend again, and to support them as the re-enter society. The criminal justice system works with other organisations to help prevent crime and bring those who to offend to justice and also educating society and keeping them involved in ways they can help. Even with the inconsistencies and impediments, without a criminal justice system, societies all over the world would be overrun with chaos and society would cease to function. In order to keep society smooth running and the people safe maintenance of the criminal justice system is vital for social order and control. References Composition of government expenditure on criminal justice [image] (2006-2007). Retrieved 26 December 2011, from http://www. aic. gov. au/statistics/criminaljustice. aspx Daly, Kathleen; Israel, Mark ; Goldsmith, Andrew John. (2006) Crime and Justice: A guide to criminology, 3rd Ed. Sydney: Lawbook Co. Ch. 13 Daly, Kathleen, Ã¢â¬Å"Aims of the Criminal Justice systemÃ¢â¬ p275 Government expenditure by sector [image] (2004-2005). Retrieved 26 December 2011, from http://www. aic. gov. au/statistics/criminaljustice. aspx Perrone, S. , ; White, R. (2010) Crime Criminality ; Criminal Justice (1st Ed. ) Oxford: Oxford University Press Why Do We as a Society Need a Criminal Justice System? Why do we (as a society) need a criminal justice system? Everyday, society is the respondent to rules and procedures that shape the way we interact with one another. Perhaps the most defining rules and procedures are those that deal with criminality and criminal justice. This paper will firstly look at the goals of the criminal justice system and how the criminal justice system tries to achieve them. Secondly, this essay will examine how the criminal justice system functions and whether this is effective in achieving the goals it sets out. Perhaps the most obvious goal of the criminal justice system is to respond to crime. This goal is fulfilled through the apprehension of those who perpetrate crimes, and the subsequent punishment of these offenders. However, when looking at the full scope of the functions of the criminal justice system, it further aims to prevent crime and promote personal and community safety (Pink, 2007). In summary, the basic function of the criminal justice system is social control (Bryett, Crasswell, Harrison, Arch, & Shaw, 1993). Social controls dictate what behaviours are acceptable in society, so as to ensure the best interests of society as a whole are maintained (Bryette, et. al. , 1993). While the criminal justice system is not the only form of social control, it is perhaps the most obvious formal control. The government criminalizes activities and behaviours that are deemed to be harmful to society. This government then gives the criminal justice system the power and resources to enforce these laws and punish those who do not conform (Bryett, et al. , 1993). This formal control is used to reinforce informal social controls such as family, education, peers and mass media: which, on their own are generally quite effective social controls. However, informal controls alone cannot be relied upon to enforce criminal justice processes, therefore the state imposes the powers of the criminal justice system to regulate society. The Australian criminal justice system is based on the belief that all people are treated equally in the eyes of the law. Concepts such as separation of powers, judicial precedent and fair procedures are key to the Australian riminal justice system (http://www. dfat. gov. au/facts/legal-systems. html). In Australia, each state and territory governs its own set of criminal laws, enforcement, adjudicative and correctional systems (Earle, Sarre, & Tomaino, 1999), with the federal government making laws on trade and commerce, taxation, defense, external affairs, and immigration and citizenship (http://www. dfat. gov. au/facts/l egal-systems. html). While there are some central legal themes, this arrangement leads to differing definitions of offences and appropriate sentencing (Earle, Sarre, & Tomaino, 1999). Each of these state and federal governments are comprised of 3 separate branches of government: legislative, executive and judicial. The legislative arm of the government makes laws, while the executive government administers the laws, and the judiciary independently interprets these laws and applies them (http://www. dfat. gov. au/facts/legal-systems. html). This concept is known as the separation of powers, and was employed to prevent one group having the power to be judge, jury and executioner in the criminal justice process (Hayes & Prenzler, 2009). The criminal justice system is also made up of three core elements: police, courts and corrections. Police are the first response in the criminal justice system and are responsible for crime prevention and detection, maintaining public order and providing emergency assistance. They are also responsible for apprehending suspects to be processed through the next phase of the criminal justice system, the courts (Hayes & Prenzler, 2009). It is the role of the criminal courts to adjudicate cases brought before them. It is here that the guilt or innocence of the defendant is determined (Pink, 2007). If guilt is found, the defendant is moved on to the corrective services, which administers the sentence brought down by the court. This can result in being taken into custody, community work, or rehabilitation (Pink, 2007). While these three systems are connected to each other, they also have their own agendas, leading many to query the phrase Ã¢â¬Ëcriminal justice systemÃ¢â¬â¢ (Daly, 2006). Daly (2006) describes an accurate definition for the term Ã¢â¬ËsystemÃ¢â¬â¢ as a collection of interdependent agenciesÃ¢â¬â¢, each having itsÃ¢â¬â¢ own function. Prenzler & Sarre (2009) note that the current criminal justice system shows very little systematic or authoritative co-ordination between the various agencies. This is mainly due to the fact that these agencies have differing aims. For example, the police perform necessary duties to capture and detain suspects, while the courts work to protect the rights of the defendant, in some cases going so far as to discredit the police if they fail to follow correct procedures (Daly, 2006). These differences sometimes lead to what is seen to be lenient sentencing, and can reduce public confidence in the criminal justice system (Hayes & Prenzler, 2009). However, while some people may believe that the components of the criminal justice system as we know it are contradictory and in some cases inefficient, the alternative would not protect people from the abuses of state power (Daly, 2006) through corruption, bias and a monopoly of power. As stated earlier, the aim of the criminal justice system is to prevent crime, respond to crime, punish crime and protect the community in a fair and just manor to all people. While the phrase Ã¢â¬Ëcriminal justice systemÃ¢â¬â¢ may cause debate about its accuracy in defining the criminal justice process that Australia adheres to, the concept of the criminal justice system is important to achieving the goals that it has set out. In fact, the same notion that encourages people to report that the criminal justice system is not a system, is the very notion that allows the criminal justice system carry out itsÃ¢â¬â¢ objectives. The criminal justice system as we know it is a strong formal social control and, in conjunction with informal social controls, is essential to provide a moral and democratic society. References Australian Government: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2011). About Australia. Retrieved 20 December 2011 from http://www. dfat. gov. au/facts/legal_systems. html Bryett, K. , Crasswell, E. , Harrison, Arch, & Shaw, J. (1993). An Introduction to Policing: Vol 1: Criminal Justice in Australia. Sydney: Butterworths. Daly, K. , Isreal, M. , & Goldsmith, A. J. (2006). Crime and Justice: A Guide to Criminology (3rd Ed. ). Sydney: Lawbook Co. Prenzler, T. & Sarre, R. (2009). The Criminal Justice System. In H. Hayes. , & T. Prenzler. (Ed. ). (2009). An Introduction to Crime and Criminology (2nd Ed. ). New South Wales: Pearson Education Australia. Pink, B. (2007). National Criminal Justice Statistical Framework. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Sarre, R. , & Tomaino, J. A. (1999). Exploring Criminal Justice: Contemporary Australian Themes. Adelaide: South Australian Institute of Justice Studies.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
The purpose of this investigation is to find the real reason why and how Copal collapsed. Copal was placed where Honduras is today; Copal showed they were great civilization of the cultural Amman life. People wondered what happened to the once great civilization. Copal civilization had a rapid fall do to diseases, natural disasters, overpopulation, economic disruption, and many more. All those things that can happen to a civilization bring a collapse. But people around wanted evidence, from information that I read it was said there was no follow period and land was Ewing overused.This was also hipping leading into another fact that the population was getting to large more than what civilization can hold. The evidence that kind of gave you the answer of the telling of overpopulation was the skulls and bones left behind. When the skulls were found there was a question was do these to skulls have different outcomes on what happened to them? Skull #1 showed it had severe anemia which pro bably killed the Copal citizen. Skull # 1 had spongy looking areas on the back of their skull which are caused by lack of iron in diet. The percentage was 0 percent of skeleton showed they had anemia.Skull # 2 showed the Amman culture way of they had being wrapped during childhood formed into shape that Mayans are use to. The teeth were carved in an intricate pattern, something that Maya upper social classes would do. Skull # 2 was also shown that it had spongy looking areas on the on there had. This Amman noble had anemia also. The evidence has now proved this was not a gradual fall. In the forest there were plants that could have evidence In how and why Copal collapsed. These plants can tell us how it collapsed based on heir life style and how It affected the plants.These plants showed that Copal valley had a heaver return back to the forest. I reached the conclusion that there were people with anemia when they died. A constant of over farming, too big of a population for Its own civilization, and economic disruption. This to me and evidence that there was a rapid decline going on. To prevent a collapse from happening It Is said that every society should have their own needs of rules, food, labor, drinks, and trader. Also your society should have educational purposes, with a passing of certain expectations.To make sure this Is all being followed your society should provide meaning and motivation to Its members. Amman Collapse By Distant-Johnson this was not a gradual fall. In the forest there were plants that could have evidence in their life style and how it affected the plants. These plants showed that Copal valley population for its own civilization, and economic disruption. This to me and evidence that there was a rapid decline going on. To prevent a collapse from happening it is expectations. To make sure this is all being followed your society should provide meaning and motivation to its members.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Sustainable approaches to animal behaviour and welfare research - Essay Example iotic relationship since time immemorial, the other side of the coin that animal too have feelings and superior intelligence have just started dawning on humankind. The nineteenth and the twentieth century saw animals being treated as commodities and exploited without remorse as beasts of burden, as a source of food and entertainment for man, and for biological research in order to search for the secrets of life and cures for debilitating diseases. Voices started being raised for animal welfare during the latter half of the twentieth century when people from some sections of society observed the cruelty being meted out to the poor creatures. Soon, volunteer and social organizations for animal welfare cropped up in all parts of the world and research activities were directed towards the investigation and formulation of better animal welfare policies and initiation of endeavours to stop cruelty on animals started being conceived. Animal welfare science has developed over the last few years as a specialist entity and has come to be recognised as an interdisciplinary effort (Lund et al, 2006). However, the authors feel that it has till now bean the mainstay of representatives of natural sciences only and needs to adopt a broader interdisciplinary perspective to increase its horizon of activity (Lund et al, 2006). The concerns for animal welfare are being addressed internationally by organizations such as the OIE (Office Internatio nal des Epizooties) which provides the international trade agreements for animal welfare and the control of diseases in domesticated farm animals (Lund et al, 2006). The authors feel that the time has arrived when the discipline of animal welfare should encompass a broader horizon by making it a trans-disciplinary subject, as so far it has stayed within the confines of natural sciences only. Animal psychology, ethics, politics and economics too need to be brought into the perspective of animal welfare science according to the authors (Lund et
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Museum spaces and department stores are both phantasmagoric spaces - Essay Example The viewer was not able to comprehend the meaning of swiftly and chaotically changing images and thus, could only perceive them as paranormal. Since the inception of time, projection and external beam effect techniques have been used by the magicians and theater to induce their viewers to believe-in, what is displayed for them. The same strategy is adapted by museums and lately it has also been used by the department stores. The psychological implication behind this technique is to produce inimitable impression on the spectators so they can believe the clairvoyant quality of the article on display. The aura, visual light effects, structure of the building and their rapidly changing aspect make these articles exclusive in the museum. Therefore, maximum attention is paid on the surrounding of the article to give it a mystic touch. Kapferer (2002) sheds light on why any space becomes phantasmagoric space and when any space is disjoined from the day to day life thus, due to its unusual a ttributes then such a space would be entitled for phantasmagoric space. Furthermore, he explains that phantasmagoric spaces entail generative forces, which represent them as distinctive. Their aura is beyond comparison as they stand apart from the rest of the world. Ã¢â¬ËVictoria and Albert MuseumÃ¢â¬â¢ of London embraces the premium collection of worldÃ¢â¬â¢s finest decorative of arts. It represents the art and design collection of over 3000 years, which is worth approximately 4.5 million. The art, design and housing decorative of Ã¢â¬ËV & AÃ¢â¬â¢ represent innovation and diversity of human kind. The marble sculpture of Ã¢â¬ËSamson slaying a PhilistineÃ¢â¬â¢ by Giambolanga (1560-2) is design inspired from the Ã¢â¬ËBook of judgesÃ¢â¬â¢ (An episode of the old Testament) (Samson, 2006). The seven feet tall large-scale sculpture is well defined in its sense of movement and Ã¢â¬ËV & A museumÃ¢â¬â¢ authorities have kept it wisely in a central court gallery, where na tural light of sun and dramatic shadows of the surroundings imitate realistic attributes in the sculpture. The architecture of the building is in North Italian Renaissance style with a centralized grand auditorium. In the two storey museum the sculpture is placed amidst in one of the galleries, where viewers can observe them and get enchanted. The English gothic art architecture of ceiling has a rectangular opening in between to throw natural light on the sculptures. Ã¢â¬ËThe HammerBeam ceiling inspirationÃ¢â¬â¢ also entails Italic Vault style in the remaining curving part of the roof. (Courtesy of V & A Museum, 2013 1) The objective of creating a exclusive aura was to display the worth of Giambolanga sculpture. The instrument of killing is carved in a manner that it shows a brutal action without hesitancy. The intertwined figures are portrayed on a differentiated surface. Hence, the lifelike sculptor has a medieval surrounding to give it a complete phantasmagoric effect. The sp ace is edified by a backdrop of carved wood temple and wall. The strap against Samson chest entails the inscription of Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬ ¦. BELGAEÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ (Victoria and Albert Museum). Though, the inscription is not visible from distance, but with a closer view; it develops the aura of steadfastness and identification. The Caesarean region and tribes
Major trends today in the change in labour force - Essay Example There are basically seven major factors that motivate small and large companies in diversifying their workforces. These seven factors include the social responsibility, economic payback, resource imperative, legal requirement, marketing strategy, strategy related to business communications and strategy building. As a good diversity practice the people from disadvantaged groups of a community are considered and this relates to corporate responsibility of any business. Through diversification of the workforce the individuals can get a break required for earning a living. Diversification of workforce that is through welfare to work is likely to turn the tax users in tax payers. The changing demographics have greatly affected the workforce. The labor pool today includes people from various backgrounds and different life experiences. Under the legislation many companies round the world are observing equal employment opportunity that makes it best possible to utilize a workforce that is di verse. Nowadays in such a competitive world to fulfill a customer base that is extensive diverse it is very important to have a diverse workforce which is capable of making up for the customer base from every walk of life. For the companies that opt for retaining the homogenous workforces things are likely to become ineffective very soon. While recruiting the employees all the successful companies generally look for a diverse workforce and value them for their unique abilities and qualities. Analysis of Workforce Diversity Valuing and managing the workforce diversity is one of the key elements of effective management of people. This can ultimately enhance the workforce productivity and the overall performance of the company. The demographic changes like organizational restructuring, women in working places and the legislation related to equal employment opportunity require the companies a review of their management procedures and the development of new and innovative ways to manage people. Advantages of Workforce Diversity Diversity at the workplace has a lot of benefits that are discussed ahead. Workforce diversity is probable to lead towards an innovative and creative culture that has no limits. A diverse workforce can lead a profit making by ideas, creativity, innovation and exchange of knowledge (Esty, et al., 1995). An organization that has built up a rapport for diverse workforce is famous for attracting the best talent from all parts of the world. Marketing of products can be made easier as people with different backgrounds can come up with unique marketing campaigns that are likely to increase the sale. People from different areas speak different languages so the workforce that is diverse can understand and can develop better bonds with the customers as the company has employees that can speak various numbers of languages. Workforce diversity is also taken to play a crucial part in the effective solving of problems nowadays. By the diversity different talents are put together and different set of skills is used that increase productivity of the organization. By attracting and retaining the employees with diverse skills, competencies, talents, knowledge etc. the company is likely to win a competitive advantage. Diversity assists in building a synergy amongst teams and improves the communication skills. A lot of money can be saved by this diversification process as this is what the legislation of any country says. Challenges related to Workforce
Monday, August 26, 2019
Marketing Communication Strategy - Sales Promotion - Assignment Example Ã Direct marketing is a channel form of advertising that helps business as well as non-profit organisations to directly communicate with the customers with the help of various advertising techniques like online display of ads, catalogue distribution, mobile messaging, promotional letters etc. Advertising is a form of communication that helps to persuade the audience to take some action. The action would be to purchase the product or service. An efficient and effective marketing communication mix is essential otherwise the company will not survive in the competitive marketplace. Effective marketing communication with customers is essential in order to generate profits and sales. Now in the context of the project, the two companies that have been chosen to demonstrate the usage of the mentioned communication mixes are KFC and McDonalds. Both KFC, as well as McDonald's, hugely invest in their communication strategy. The report will begin by providing a brief introduction to the chosen companies as it will help to relate the subject more efficiently. The report will also highlight the 3 major marketing communication mixes used by them in the marketplace. Apart from that, the report will also emphasize the importance and scope of the mentioned communication mix. In the context of the project, the following three major elements used as the promotional elements are advertisements, sales promotion and public relation. The effectiveness and efficiency of marketing communication strategies of KFC and McDonalds are:- Sales Promotion: - Sales promotion is amongst the seven elements of the promotional mix. Examples of sales promotion include the contest, discount coupons, product samples and various other freebies (Gartner and Bellamy, 2009, p.350). Now in the context of the project, KFC makes use of sales promotion to a large extent. The company uses the following tools in order to further improve the sales. It includes coupons, premiums and entertainment. Every outlet of KFC offers the different type of incentives such as coupons, the free add-on, and the free meal to the customers for the purpose of selling.Ã Ã
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Australia's national interests would be better served by pursuing a foreign policy that is more independent of the United S - Essay Example For instance, AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s primary national interest was to gain strategic dominance in the region to fight against all possible external threats. Initially it was among the colonies of UK in the pre World War II era and therefore it had to face substantial political threats soon after the independence. Hence forming ANZUS alliance with USA was the foremost step in order to safeguard the national interests of the country (McLean, 2006). However, after the US declaration of war on terror the overall nature of ANZUS was dramatically changed and AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s national interests began to get negatively affected by the intervention of US. Now researchers are critically analyzing the core objectives of ANZUS alliance and the current political scenario. It would be now significantly better for the Australian government to execute an independent foreign policy so as to protect its national goals and objectives. Moreover such independence will facilitate the Australian government t o save itself from the international wars and politics. But the consequences and reaction of US government in such a situation cannot be underestimated (Umetsu, 2006). This paper aims to critically evaluate the relationship between Australia and USA in terms of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s national interests and foreign policy. Moreover, it will discuss the key interest behind ANZUS alliance since 1950s, the core reasons behind AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in wars against Afghanistan and Iraq including its moral and legal justifications. This shall be followed by AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s relationships with Asia and Middle East subsequently leading to the end of discussion i.e. either independent foreign policy is suitable for Australia or not. Since the very beginning Australia has depended upon the British and American powers in order to gain strategic benefits and also to fulfill its national interests. When British were ruling the world Australians were under their strong influence. However, when America came into power it also took control over the foreign policies and strategic matters of Australia. This ultimately resulted in ANZUS alliance which was formed in 1950 (McLean, 2006). Historical records reveal that Australia was never able to practice complete authority over its national matters due to the mental dependency and also because of the massive influence of American power. Critics such as Alan Ramsey argue that Australian government officials have proved to be more sincere to US rather than to their own nation. Hence it can be said that Australia actually transformed into an American colony after gaining independence from Britain (McLean, 2006). Australia had some key interests in forming and maintaining ANZUS alliance. For instance, in the post-World War II era Australia needed to have strong foreign relationships in order to meet any threat to its national interests. Furthermore, the significantly strong economic position of USA played a vital role in drivi ng and uplifting the Australian economy, while on the other hand Australia was specifically interested in gaining domestic political benefits from US interventions (Beeson, 2003). If we closely analyze the address of Australian Prime Minister Julia GillardÃ¢â¬â¢s to the Congress representatives in the US then we can easily anticipate that Australia is not only
Saturday, August 24, 2019
The Grapes of Wrath - Essay Example The film and the book reveal the plight of individuals who are earnestly working to ease suffering alongside other circumstances that are purely not of their making. With no suggestions being offered either in the book or film, Ma Joad announces that the solution to unemployment will be the duty of the people. To this note, the movie ends with a lot of optimism that someday somewhere, there will be a reprieve. (Finn, 2) The film portrays two main themes. In the entire movie, maturity is clearly shown; this is the concept that lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s process requires a rebirth of the mind. Amidst the difficulties that people encounter, one is not to give up, you need to renew your strength and carry on with the struggle because sometimes, a good day comes and things become different and better. Peoples past experiences have revealed that whenever puts on a new face in the midst of trouble, your efforts never fade until finally showers of hope come along. The theme of maturity is revealed in many experiences that the family until, at its end, the film provides an optimism that things will get better. Secondly, the theme of mistreatment comes out clearly in the theme; residents are made to encounter hardships in the hands of the mighty people. Views in the Ã¢â¬ËOkieÃ¢â¬â¢ Californian camps expose conditions where people are greatly deprived of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s necessities. The state troops and the local police push about the people and the visitors that are unwelcomed in a foreign land. The whole movie brings to us a story that has merciless treatments. It is only in one spot where the visitors find solace; the governments agricultural camp in the northern California. This is a highly captivating narrative, very natural and pure. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a classical novel, about a poor family which is made to travel to look for a greener pastures a place of comfort, where they can live in peace and afford a decent life. The family sets to California where
Friday, August 23, 2019
Business report on Emaar Properties PJSC Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
Business report on Emaar Properties PJSC - Essay Example It has not just shaped landscapes and built homes but also has developed and master-planned value added communities that has been able to satisfy the lifestyle needs of a diverse customers. Emaar Properties today is the leader in real estate and construction sector in The Emirate. Today the company has its presence globally which is a result of its expansion strategy. The company has expanded geographically and at the same time has been able to segment its business into numerous industries (Emaar.ae, 2010). The numerous business segments of Emaar Properties are: Emaar Hotels & Resorts Emaar Commercial Leasing Emaar Technologies Emaar Retail Emaar Malls Group Emaar Hospitality Group Emaar International was launched in 2004 to diversify the business. With this strategic move the company has been able to sustain the growth as it is not dependent on a single market. Even though the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s main focus is North Africa, Middle East and the Indian subcontinent the company has its pr esence in UK, US and other western countries (Emaar.ae, 2010). The following diagram shows the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s global presence: (Emaar.com, 2007) This report is targeted analysing the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s basic legal, social, and economic environments.... It is very important as it defines the framework under which an organization must operate. As Emaar Properties is operational in numerous countries, the company must look into each country independently and understand the legal environment in the specific country. Emaar Properties has done well to adapt to legal environments of different countries. It has made necessary changes to its organizational structure to abide by the laws in each country. With respect to the parent country, Emaar Properties has been able establish a strong relationship with the government of UAE. The legal system in UAE has accommodated both modern and classical concepts. It has a modern legal structure and at the same time has been able to keep the traditional values intact. The government of UAE has promoted and tried to reform the overall structure of the country with intent to providing the citizens with modern amenities at an affordable cost and the best services. Emaar Properties has aligned its busines s model on these lines which has helped it to achieve great success in a short time. Emaar PropertyÃ¢â¬â¢s business model is aimed at providing the best services at effective prices to the citizens. Its numerous services such as building of homes, community centres, hospitality, malls, education, etc have all contributed to the development of the country and hence, the company has received full backing from the government. Emaar Properties has a partnership with the government wherein 32% of the shares in the company is held by the government. This has tremendously helped the company to understand and tackle any legal issues. This also shows how the
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Genetically Modified Foods and the Labeling Debate Essay There has been an ongoing debate between consumers and the government regarding the use of Genetically Modified Foods in the market today. Ã¢â¬Å"Since the introduction of the Flavr Savr tomato, biotechnology companies continue to introduce genetically engineered agricultural products to consumersÃ¢â¬ (Whittaker). The Ã¢â¬Å"Flavr SavorÃ¢â¬ tomato was the first food available to consumers that was produced using technology involving the recombinant DNA techniques in 1993. This was the dawn of a new generation in food production, and thus a whole new world of genetically engineered foods. At the present time the government, more specifically, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not regulated labeling products that contain genetically engineered foods. Currently the policy for labeling all consumer products must meet the standards of the safety and nutritional assessment. The evaluations of genetically engineered foods by legal authority require that bioengineered foods must meet the same standards set forth for all imported and exported foods marked for human and animal consumption and according to the US FDA genetically modified (GM) foods meet these guidelines. Since the early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s scientists has been researching new and improved techniques to bring plumper, juicer and insecticide resistant agricultural products to all consumers. But research such as this is nothing new to the scientific community and for over 50 years techniques have been used to create strains of wheat, rice, pears and many more crop species to create high yielding products that are capable of growing anywhere and anytime of the year. Currently, only one tenth of the world actually uses GM plants with the countries of Canada, US, Brazil and Argentina growing 90 percent of the GM crops (Freedman). With the majority of these crops being produced in North America, the US is seeing GM foods everywhere and this is drawing attention to different agencies and groups pushing to educate the public by labeling any products that contain genetically engineered foods. The US Food and Drug Administration has been dealing with the battle against labeling products with genetically modified organisms (GMO) for years, but regardless of the consistent scrutiny the FDA sticks firmly to the current regulations that govern the labeling of all foods for human and animal consumption. Under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic (FDC) Act, which drives the FDAÃ¢â¬â¢s safety regulations for food and food ingredients, Ã¢â¬Å"unless a significant safety risk exists or there is a sincere need for consumers to distinguish between food products before purchase, the FDA hesitates to mandate labeling of food productsÃ¢â¬ (Leggio). Joseph A. Levitt, Director of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition with the US Food and Drug Administration states in his Ã¢â¬Å"Should the FDA Adopt a Stricter Policy on Genetically Engineered Foods? Ã¢â¬ testimony that Ã¢â¬Å"bioengineered foods and food ingredients must adhere to the same standards of safety under the FDC act that apply to their conventionally bred counterpartsÃ¢â¬ (Levitt, 81). With the strict laws set forth, the FDA remains consistent with its decision to maintain their current labeling program as it adheres to all safety standards of any food for consumption. The US FDA also assures the public that they have done significant research for decades on biotechnology foods to ensure it is safe for consumers, and additional testing is conducted years prior to the release of a GM product to the shelves. Scientists address all of the potential concerns to include the potential to adding new allergy causing proteins, removing vital nutrients and the possibility of introducing toxins, in these studies to ensure that unexpected results do not occur, Ã¢â¬Å"this testing provides a way to detect such changes at the development stageÃ¢â¬ (Levitt, 79) and it will also delay any release of products until they are able to find a solution. The FDA takes such precautions and studying all aspects of this technology to be confident that the risks are non-existent. Although the government has provided the public with research, publications, testimonies and scientific proof that the current law governing the labeling of food and animal products is appropriate and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t require change, there is still much concern of the risks that the technology poses to humans. Barbara Boxer, a US Senator from California, introduced the Genetically Engineered Food Right-To-Know Act in 2001 in her testimony in Ã¢â¬Å"Should the FDA Adopt a Stricter Policy on Genetically Engineered Foods? Ã¢â¬ which states Ã¢â¬Å"all foods containing or produced with genetically engineered material bear a neutral labelÃ¢â¬ (Boxer, 76). This act was created based on the lack of data and concerns that GM products are introducing risks of exposure to many health issues to include food allergens, lack of nutrition and toxic ailments. These claims are legitimate, however, the US FDA does take precautions as stated by Joseph A. Levitt, specifically with these risks while conducting trials during the developing stages of the product. In 2011 there was a petition filed against the FDA which warranted the need for labeling of GM products. According to this petition Ã¢â¬Å"consumers are misled when food labels do not differentiate foods with known health properties from novel foods with unknown health consequencesÃ¢â¬ (Burgaard). An example of such health concerns come from a study performed in Scotland at the Rowett Institute in 1998. A plant biochemist named Arpad Pusztai conducted an experiment on rats who consumed a genetically engineered potato and his experiment concluded that the rats that were fed the modified potato Ã¢â¬Å"suffered growth and immune system-related changesÃ¢â¬ (Freedman). Ironically, the genetically modified potato used in this study Ã¢â¬Å"was not intended for human consumption it was, in fact, designed to be toxic for research purposes,Ã¢â¬ (Freedman) discrediting the research altogether. Additionally, Ã¢â¬Å"American Medical Association, the National Academy of Sciences, the World Health Organization, and more than twenty-five Nobel Prize-winning scientists have concluded that there is no scientific evidence that GM food carries any risk to human health and that genetically engineered crops are safe,Ã¢â¬ (Burgaard) which ties into the overall nutrition and safety assessment that genetically engineered foods meet the same standards that imported and exported foods at held too. In the end, the US Food and Drug Administration stands by the current law governing the policy on labeling genetically modified foods. They maintain their standing on mandated labeling even under the microscope of doubters, but most importantly the Ã¢â¬Å"FDAs process for evaluating bioengineered foods is one in which the public can have confidence that food biotechnology products must meet the laws safety standardsÃ¢â¬ (Maryanski). The FDA cares deeply of the health and wellbeing of the consumers in America and strive to meet the needs of the public in both food and nutrition education. Until the studies show significant risks or changes in the GM products warranting the need to readdress the process, the government and the US Food and Drug Administration believe their approach is relevant and remain firm to the present policies. Annotated Bibliography Whittaker, Michael A. Reevaluating The Food And Drug Administrations Stand On Labeling Genetically Engineered Foods. San Diego Law Review 35. 4 (1998): 1215. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Jan. 2014. This journal review argues that the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) must reconsider its position on the labeling of genetically engineered food as well as consumer perceptions of the threat posed by genetically engineered foods. Freedman, David H. Are Engineered Foods Evil?. Scientific American 309. 3 (2013): 80-85. Environment Complete. Web. 2 Jan. 2014. This article discusses the debate over the safety of genetically modified (GM) crops. It covers comments from agricultural and environmental economist at the University of California, Berkeley, David Zilberman, on the benefits of GM foods compared to their health risks, a ban on GM crops by the European Union (EU), and the difference between selective plant breeding and mutagenic techniques. Leggio, Kelly A. Limitations On The Consumers Right To Know: Settling The Debate Over Labeling Of Genetically Modified Foods In The United States. San Diego Law Review 38. 3 (2001): 893. Academic Search Premier. Web. 3 Jan. 2014. This journal review supports the decision of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to reject mandatory labeling of genetically modified foods as a solution to accommodate consumer fears. There is a description of an approach designed to evaluate whether mandatory initiatives are appropriate to protect consumers right to know and the importance for states to follow guidelines established by the FDA. Should The FDA Adopt A Stricter Policy On Genetically Engineered Foods? PRO/CON. Congressional Digest 80. 3 (2001): Pages 76-95. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Jan. 2014. This is a two part article that discusses genetically engineered foods and the potential need to adopt a more strict policy. The articles provided information from the perspective of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Joseph A. Levitt, the director of the Center of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition and US Senator, Barbara Boxer who speaks on behalf of the Genetically Engineered Food Right-to-Know Act and additional interviews that were conducted to give the audience an overall understanding of both sides of the debate. Burgaard, Sudhir. The Labeling Of Genetically Modified Foods Debate. Natural Resources Environment 28. 1 (2013): 55-57. Environment Complete. Web. 2 Jan. 2014. This article focuses on the debate on labeling of genetically modified (GM) food which reflects food safety concerns in the U. S. It highlights various legal issues related to use of GM foods which includes increased risk of antibiotic resistant bacteria, increased use of pesticides, and environmental effects. It briefs the audience about the Center for Food Safety filing a legal petition with the U. S. Food and Drug Administration regarding labeling of genetically engineered food. Maryanski, . James H. , Ph D. News Events. Genetically Engineered Foods. US Food and Drug Administration, 19 Oct. 1999. Web. 2 Jan. 2014. This testimony is from the perspective of the Biotechnology Coordinator with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that discusses the current regulations governing genetically engineered foods and the process that dictates what and how determines what a DNA derived food is labeled. It includes a variety of examples that justifies the current labeling regulations and why GM Foods may not require additional information for the consumers.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Research on Malaria in Moyale District Essay Malaria originates from Medieval Italian Mala aria which mean Ã¢â¬Å"bad airÃ¢â¬ ; and the disease was formerly called Ague or Marsh fever due to its association with swamps and marshland, (Watkins, 2001). Scientific studies on Malaria made their first significant advance in 1880, when Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran a French army doctor working in the military hospital of Constantine in Algeria observed malaria plasmodium parasites inside the red blood cell of people suffering from Malaria. Documentation of report on discovery of origin of Malaria, one of the deadliest diseases of humanity shows that Chimpanzees, native to equatorial Africa have been identified as the original source of the parasite that likely moved from them to humans via mosquitoes. Wolfe, (2009) identified several parasites from Chimpanzee that show Malarial jumped from animal to human. Malaria is transmitted by Anopheline mosquitoes the number and type of which determine the extent of transmission in a given area. The plasmodium falciparum accounts for the majority of infections and is most lethal. Transmission is affected by climate and geography and often coincides with the rainy season. In WHO/UNICEF, (2005) report malaria is one of the most devastating global public health problems with more than one million deaths and approximately 300-500 million cases of malaria annually. WHO, (2010) report, Malaria is by far the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s worse tropical parasitic disease, and kills more people than any other communicable disease. Several studies observed that malaria kills more than 3,000 children daily and is the single most important factor for mortality among children under the age of five. Additionally, an estimated 25 million pregnant women are at risk of malaria. Malaria is endemic in a total of 101 countries and territories 45 countries in WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s African region, 21 in WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s American region, 4 in WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s European region, 14 in WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s Eastern Mediterrarian Region, 8 In WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s South Ã¢â¬â East Asia region, and 9 in WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s Western Pacific region, (report from global health council on impact of infectious diseases. ) WHO, (2007) report has shown that malaria has reached epidemic proportions in many regions of the world and continues to spread unchecked. In many regions of developing countries malaria exacts an enormous toll in lives, medical costs, and in days of labor lost. According to Roll-Back Malaria (RBM), over 40 per cent of the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s children live in malaria-endemic countries and 107 countries and territories are at risk of malaria transmission. Malaria causes 24 percent of under-five deaths in Equatorial Guinea (UNICEF 2008). Malaria is preventable, if adequate resources are invested in prevention. About 98 percent of Equatorial Guineans live in areas with endemic risk of malaria but only one percent of children under five sleeps under insecticide-treated nets. This is far fewer than in other Countries with similar malaria risk. This suggests inadequate efforts to prevent malaria that would contribute to the realization of the right to health of both children and adults. Children under the age of five, pregnant women, and people living with HIV and AIDS are at highest risk for developing clinical malaria. More than 80 per cent of these cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO/RBM, (2004). Malaria is a primary cause of poverty, putting additional burdens on health systems and costing Africa an estimated 12 billion USDs in lost production every year. The spread of the disease is fuelled by several factors: climate change, increasing population mobility, more frequent international transport, emergence of multi drug-resistant strains, and military and economic deterioration. Abuja summit in Nigeria in the year 2000, 44 African leaders reaffirmed their commitment to roll back malaria and set interim target for Africa. They challenged other world leaders to join them in recognizing the importance of tackling malaria as a disease of poverty. Following the Abuja summit, Africa Malaria Day was declared as a day to celebrate on malaria and a subsequent UN resolution declared 2001-2010. Roll Back Malaria, especially in Africa, giving prominence to Malaria in United Nations Millennium Development Goals. The Africa Malaria report, released in the year 2003/Nairobi/Geneva/New York by the World Health Organization (WHO 2005), and the United Nations ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund (UNICEF), said the death toll from malaria remains outrageously high-with a child dying in every 30 seconds. The report gives an African situation for the struggle against the diseases and highlights the urgent need to make effective anti-malarial treatment available to most at risk. Ã¢â¬Å"The roll back Malaria initiatives has made considerable progress since it was launched in 1998, but we need to increase to combat a devastating disease which is holding back the development of many African countries,Ã¢â¬ states Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO. Nationally Malaria has been a serious public health problem in most Districts of Kenya and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. With more than 70% of the KenyaÃ¢â¬â¢s population living in areas where malaria is transmitted, Malaria is responsible for approximately 30% of out-patient visits (requiring more than eight million out-patient treatments each year), and 19% of all hospital admissions. At least 14,000 children are hospitalized annually for malaria, and there are an estimated 34,000 deaths among children under-five each year. Annually, an estimated six thousand pregnant women suffer from malaria-associated anemia, and four thousand babies are born with low birth weight as a result of maternal anemia, report from government health facility in 2007. Economically, it is estimated that 170 million working days are lost each year because of malaria illness. Culture and poor access to health facilities lead to increase in cases of malaria. The main thing peculiar with children under 5 years is that many cannot sleep under net due to incapability of their parent especially in rural areas, because of the few wages they hardly get from their casual work. Most children again play outside in the grasses or near drainage where mosquitoÃ¢â¬â¢s breeds thus are exposed to mosquito bites. In local situation Malaria is the highest causes death of many people in the region of Moyale and districts of North Eastern province bordering Moyale district from east. Malaria claims the life of 1,500 in the year 1998 and out of that 45 death in Wajir district (Daily Nation, Thursday, February 1998). Sololo Mission Hospital reported the admission of 67 people. Out of 67people, 25 children of less than five years were reported cases of malaria (SMH/1999). 1. 2 problem articulation/ statement: Malaria is WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s most important parasite infectious disease. Over 2 billion people are at risk between 300 and 500 million episodes and over 1 million deaths annually, WHO, (2005). Over 90% of malaria burden are in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is one of the planets deadliest diseases and one of the leading causes of sickness and death in the developing world. Documentation also show that Malaria affect child cognitive, physical development and leads to poor school attendance. Malaria also leads to malnutrition and anemic condition in children. More so it also affects adultÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to make a living and care for their families. At country level malaria affects trade, tourism and foreign direct investment and there is significant correlation between malaria and poverty. An average GDP in malariaÃ¢â¬â¢s countries is five times lower than in non-malariaÃ¢â¬â¢s countries 1. 3 Objectives of the study To establish factors that lead to high prevalence of Malaria in children under five years in Obbu Division, Moyale District. 1. 4 Specific objectives: 1. To determine socio-demographic factors contributing to Malaria prevalence among the under five children in Obbu division. 2. To establish the level of knowledge on Malaria, among caregivers of children under five in Obbu Division. . Research questions 1. What are the main factors contributing to high prevalence of Malaria among the under five children in Obbu division? 2. What is the knowledge level of care givers of children under five years about the risk factors of late treatment and prevention of Malaria? 3. To what extent the level of knowledge on Malaria, among caregivers of children under five in Obbu Division? 1. 6. Hypothesis/assumption There were no factors that contribute to prevalence of malaria in children less than five years in Obbu Division of Solol District 1. 7 Justification of the study. Malaria outbreak in mid July 2012, number of cases diagnosed were 82, and 8 out of 10 reported death were children under five (Malaria/SMH/ 20012/3). The prevalence was precipitated by illiteracy, migration lifestyle of pastoralistsÃ¢â¬â¢ community and uncontrolled border intermingling and refugees from neighboring countries like Ethiopia and Somali as revealed by the study of Diseases Outbreak Management Unit-DOMU (2002). Socio demographic factors and knowledge about the diseases control and prevention attracted a lot of concern that call for research in these factors. Obbu division has few documentation of the study, so this will be helpful to academia as it will be used as document of references for a researcher in the same area of study. The government or other stakeholders will benefit from the findings and may take intervention measures for instance the Ministry of public health to educate people on the better prevention methods. The findings of the study will be used by people of the study area to plan for the prevention of the malaria, since it is preventable at every household. 1. 8 Scope of the study To investigate main factors contributing to high prevalence of Malaria among children less than five years of age in Obbu division of Moyale district. . 1. 9 Limitations 1. Data collection during interview was difficult due to migration of the population but the settlement around the centre of each four location was targeted. 2. Cost of getting trained research assistant was challenging. 3. The study was limited to factors contributing to prevalence of malaria in children less than five years of age. 2. 0 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1. 0 Origin of malaria. The history of malaria replete with a number of theories about its aetiology, the earliest theory was the Miasmatic. This theory postulated that swamp air contained chemicals which had been freed from rotting wood. This air was what was responsible for causing malaria (Ransford 1983). It was because of this theory that double storey buildings were preferred during the early days of the colonial period as it was believed that miasma did not rise above ground level (Ransford 1983) and that the miasma was thought to spread horizontally (King and King 1992). Ransford and Friedson claim that Africans were the ones who first recognized the link between mosquitoes and malaria (Ransford 1983; Friedson 1996) and in the West it was only known later through the pioneering works of Patrick Mason, Ronald Ross, Grassi and others around the 1890s. 2. 1. 1 Prevalence of Malaria. There are 300-500 million clinical cases of Malaria each year resulting in 1. 5 to 2. 7 million deaths (WHO, 2005). Global viral forecasting initiative and standard university, made the discovery published in the Aug. 2009 proceedings of the National academy of sciences Wolfe, (2009). Malaria in most countries of Western Pacific and Regional Organizations has significantly declined in the period 1992 to 2000. There is widespread consensus that the change to Artemisinin Based Combination (ACT) in Vietnam was a significant factor in the 98% drop in malaria mortality between 1992 and 2002. The geographical area affected by malaria has shrunk considerably over the past 50 years, but control is becoming more difficult and gains are being eroded. Increased risk of the disease is linked with changes in land use linked to activities like road building, mining, logging and Agricultural and irrigation projects, particularly in Ã¢â¬Å"frontierÃ¢â¬ areas like the rain forests. Other causes of its spread include global climatic change, disintegration of health services, armed conflicts and mass movements of refugees. According to citation from the August 97 issue of the American magazine the Atlantic Monthly entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Resurgence of a Deadly DiseaseÃ¢â¬ by Ellen Rippel Shell. Early success in controlling infectious diseases has bred arrogance and a belief in whopping big solutions. The emergence of multi-drug resistant strains of parasite is also exacerbating the situation. Via the explosion of easy international travel, imported cases of malaria are now more frequently registered in developed countries. Malaria is now re-emerging in areas where it was previously under control or eradicated for instance, in the central Asian and in Korea. Late 1980s, it was noted at several international meetings that the malaria situation getting worse. Figure1. PHOTO OF MOSQUITO THAT TRASMIT MALARIA. Malaria impacts globally. Malaria characteristic varies with geographical location. Malaria is endemic in a total of 101 countries and territories 45 countries in WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s African region, 21 in WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s American region, 4 in WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s European region, 14 in WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s Eastern Mediterrarian Region, 8 In WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s South Ã¢â¬â East Asia region, and 9 in WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s Western Pacific region (Noor et al. ,2002). Environmental factors such as temperature, influences Malaria prevalence in endemic areas and the disease is more frequent in rural areas than in urban areas (Noor et al. 2010). In malaria endemic parts of the world, a change in risk of malaria can be the unintended result of economic activity or Agricultural policy that changes the use of land for example creation of dams, irrigation schemes, commercial tree cropping and deforestation. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s international world, the phenomenon of Ã¢â¬Å"airport malariaÃ¢â¬ , or the importing of malaria by internati onal travelers, is becoming common place. The United Kingdom for example registered 2364 cases of malaria in 1997 and among them are 1134 children, all of them imported by travelers (UNICEF,2009). Documentation of Malaria situation analysis for Zambia (May 2000), show that malaria, particularly that caused by plasmodium falciparum, is an important public health problem in the country. Incidence of the disease has steadily rise from 1976 through 1999, to the point where it is now estimated that the incidence rate, from facility-based data, stands at 331 per 1000 population (Munthali,A. 2001). This is obviously an underestimate as many malaria cases occur at community levels which do not get reported to the formal health system. As expected, those most affected by the disease in Zambia include children under the age of five years. The clinical management of malaria in Zambia was complicated in recent years by a growing resistance to the first line treatment. The clinical failure rate ranges between 24% and 52%, levels beyond which an examination of formal change in drug policy is recommended by international health bodies such as the WHO. Studies on Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) find that, although malaria is widely recognized, there remain many misconceptions about the disease. In Ethiopia a total of 6,214,132 malaria case were diagnosed, treated microscopically or clinically during the year 1995-2000 with an annual average of 1,242,826. The number of malaria cases showed steepy increases from 816,114 in 1995/6 to 2,020,308 in 1998/9. Much of sub-Saharan Africa is exposed to stable, endemic P. falciparum transmission leading to high burdens of morbidity and mortality among children (Murray Lopez 1997; Snow et al, 1999). In addition the continent has witnessed several devastating malaria epidemic during the early 1930s in South Africa (Le Sueur et al. 1993) 1958 in Ethiopia (Fontaine et al,1961), and 1986 in Madagascar (Mouchet,1998). These outbreaks in transmission followed clearly identifiable changes in climate favoring vector and parasite proliferation and were among non-immune populations. Various estimates from these epidemics indicate that between 1% and 14% of the respective populations died. Many factors can influence the ability of parasites and vectors to coexist long enough to result in continued transmission. Several reviews have described the effects on transmission of environmental change, changes in Agriculture and forestry practices and an-made construction (Hackett, 1949; Lindsay ; Birley, 1996; Lindsay ; Martens, 1998; Mouchet et al 1998). Global warming and other climatic events such as Ã¢â¬Å"El Ã¢â¬â NinoÃ¢â¬ also play their role in increasing risk of diseases. The diseases has now spread to highlands areas of Africa for instance, while El Ã¢â¬â Nino events have an impact on Malaria because the associated weather disturbances influence vector breeding sites, and hence transmission of the disease. African children remained unprotected by an insecticide treated mosquito net in 2007 (Noor et al. , 2010). Documentation of Randomized control trials conducted in Kenya, Gambia and Ghana (UNICEF 2001) show about 30 percent of child death could be avoided if children sleep under bed nets regularly treated with recommended insecticide such as pyrethroids which will remain effective for 6 to 12 months. Malaria kills an African child every 30 seconds, and remains one of the most important threats to the health of pregnant woman and their newborns,Ã¢â¬ Bellamy, (1998). Anderson, (1943) reported that other soldiers contacted the disease in Sudan, Ethiopia and Somali due to high way which connect Nairobi to Addis Ababa in Ethiopia. Weekend Malaria, which happens when city dwellers in Africa return to their rural settings, is becoming an increasing problem. Africa child under five years of age are chronic victims, suffering an average of six bouts a year. Fatally afflicted children often die less than 72 hours after developing symptoms. In those children who survive, Malaria also drains vital nutrients from them, impairing their physical and intellectual development. Malaria sickness is also one of the principal reasons for poor school attendance in Kenya. UNICEF recognizes that malaria is one of the five major causes of mortality in children less than five years. 2. 1. 3 Malaria in Kenya. Malaria in Kenya has reached endemic in arid and semi arid region of North Eastern, Rift Valley and Eastern province. In Rift Valley itÃ¢â¬â¢s common in Baringo, Pokot and Laikipia. In Wajir one of the neighboring district in North Eastern province, Medicine Sans Frontiere, MSF (1998) reported that between January and March 1998 the mobile clinics in the town of Wajir treated over 20,000 cases of malaria among an estimated population of 60,00. This represents an absolute minimum attack rate of 33 per 1,000 populations for three months. Consultation data from Merlin (1998), suggest equal attack rates between children less than 5 and the population aged greater than five years. In Eastern Province high Malaria cases have been documented in Kitui, Machakos, Tharaka, Isiolo and Moyale district. Moyale district is a potential focus for diseases because of presence of vector habitats and intermingling of people due to border movements. All the key clinical features of Malaria including; intermittent fever and weight loss in the background of malnutrition was evidenced. Since the area borders the town of the neighboring countries which often experience outbreak, there has been need of capacity building of care givers and mothers through campaign on behavior and attitudinal changes. Figure 1. 2: MAP OF KENYA SHOWING MALARIA ENDEMIC AREA [pic] 2. 1. 4 Moyale district- Obbu division In mid July 2012 a suspected outbreak of Malaria was reported in Obbu division of Moyale district. The report by investigation team comprising of clinicians, Epidemiologist and Parasitologists established a total of 82 suspected cases.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Market Focus And Growth Strategy Of The Coca Cola Company Business Essay Part 1- Internal/External Fit Introduction Established in 1886, the Coca Cola Company operates in more than 200 countries markets more than 500 brands 3,300 beverage products. The Coca Cola Company explains its operations system this way. We are a global business that operates on a local scale in every community we do business The company believes its strengths lie in their ability to have a global reach at the same time have a local focus. The company has more than 300 bottling partners worldwide. The Coca Cola Company manufacturers sells concentrates, beverage bases syrups to bottling operations; owns the brands; is responsible for consumer brand marketing initiatives. The bottling partners manufacture, package, merchandise distribute the finished branded beverages to their customers vending partners, who then sell the Coca Cola products to consumers. Organizational Strategy Product/Market Focus Coca cola is a company that knows that their main priority is to reach their products to the customers. Coca cola focuses on improving the product itself either by design, taste, ingredients, size, convenience, and many other factors. Coca-Colas target market satisfies a wide variety of cultural consumers around the world. Moreover, their products target people who are health conscious and people who are on a diet. Their products do fit all age groups from the young to the old. There are Coca-Cola products for the athletes who train for a sport, such as Powerade (Coca-Cola Product). Also, this company has focused on people who need coffee in the morning before they go to work. Coca- Cola owns a joint venture with Illycaffe, Italy coffee brand which is primarily for the people who are coffee-lovers. The focus of this market, Coca Cola, is applicable to both male and females. Coca- Cola does engage in product diversification throughout the world. Coke a product is mainly directed to th e young children. Their advertisements are mostly directed to the young. Coke wants to target the young because they know their product will give youths power and energy. Brand extension strategy has played a key role on Coke. Coke introduces new products under their trademark Coca-Cola. Brand extension strategy is quite effective under the Coke trademark. There will be this recognition and realization from consumers, that they will be drinking a Coca Cola product. Brand extension strategy puts a new product into an existing market. Diet Coke is an example of brand extension strategy which became successful. For instance, Diet Coke has been recognized gradually by consumers worldwide, it has low calories and has been sold over 100 countries. It promotes liveliness and energy to consumers similar to Coke. Many consumers who do enjoy coke as a soft drink, there would be a higher probability for a consumer to try a can of diet-coke due to brand awareness. Rationale: Coca Cola Company wants to continue focusing their needs for consumers with regards to delivering innovative food products which includes energy drinks, vitamins, and antioxidant drinks. Furthermore, Coca Cola is focusing on creating a healthy and active lifestyle that is more adaptive to consumer behavior. Coca cola is working with their bottling partners to enhance customer relationships and make their products widely known and distributed everywhere. Growth Strategy/Goals Hard goals In terms of its growth strategy, which is their market position in the beverage industry, Coca Cola Company is concentrating in opening more opportunities in developing markets by leveraging the scale reach of the Coca Cola system to shape capture value. The company intends to accomplish it by sharpening their execution at the point of sale and expanding the brand portfolio. The company has projected that these developing markets are expected to contribute approximately 20 percent of incremental population growth over the next 10 years. Personal expenditure per capita in these markets is expected to increase by 65% over the next decade. Furthermore, Coca Cola company anticipates that developing markets will contribute approximately Ã ¼ of the incremental unit case volume by 2020. Rationale The coca cola companys long term growth strategy of investing in emerging markets, is related to the Coca Cola Company projections in these markets. The CCC attributes this to a positive correlation between wealth and the increase in consumption of Nonalcoholic ready-to-drink(NARTD) beverages. From now to 2020, more than 1 billion people will join the middle class, and the per capita wealth for individuals will increase by nearly 30 percent. They have the ability to invest in new plants in places like china India. Over the next 3 years Coca Cola company plans to invest $2 billion, 3 new plants are expected to be finished in that time period. The company clearly understands in order for intended strategy to be attained, consumer access and system alignment is key to their growth in these emerging markets. This means placing more coolers throughout these countries, in order to drive on-the-go consumption. Soft goals The Coca Cola company is also encouraging their partners in the value chain, to enhance their soft skills within these developing markets. The company is focused on growing annual consumption of beverage products. The company intends to work with its bottling partners to establish new customer relationships grow existing ones, from street vendors restaurants, to large-scale grocers. Rationale The reason why the CCC emphasizes the development of soft skills, the Coca Cola Company has a vast distribution network to contend with. To remain a leader in the beverage industry, communicating with its partners along the value chain is an important aspect of their continued success in the beverage industry. As I have said, Coca Cola Company has a huge distribution network and it is one of the best distribution network in the world, nobody in the beverage industry can match this tremendous asset. Another reason why the Coca Cola company is successful in its core activities, stems from its mission, vision values. This is the source where the CCC can attribute its success, its long-term strategy to become the most widely available consumed soft drink in the world. Perhaps the following statement which comes from the CCCs mission, vision values strategic outlook can be deemed a poignant assertion. The world is changing all around us, to continue to thrive as a business over the ne xt ten years, beyond, we must look ahead, understand the trends forces that will shape our business in the future move swiftly to prepare for whats to come. We must get ready for tomorrow, today. Mission This is Coca Colas mission statement To refresh the worldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦To inspire moments of optimism and happinessÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦To create value and make a difference. Coca Cola company mission statement clearly defines the purpose for which and reason why they exist as an organization. The employees must be feel they are a part of an organization that knows where it is heading, in terms of the language it uses with their mission statement. to create value make a difference resonates with belonging to an organization, that wants to create a culture of empowerment and continuous improvement. Vision Coca Cola Companys vision statement is a guide to what the company needs to accomplish so it can achieve sustainable and quality growth. The CCC vision statement is based on what we will call the six Ps (people, portfolio, partners, planet, profit, productivity) People: Be a great place to work, where people are inspired to the best they can be Portfolio: Bring the world a portfolio of quality beverage brands that anticipate satisfy peoples desires needs. Partners: Nurture a winning network of customers suppliers, together we create mutual enduring value. Planet: Be a responsible citizen that makes a difference by helping build support sustainable communities. Profit: Maximize long-term to shareowners while being mindful of our overall responsibilities. Productivity: Be a highly effective, lean fast-moving organization. Culture of CCC This quote epitomizes their culture: Our Winning Culture: Our winning culture defines the attitudes and behaviours that will be required of us to make our 2020 vision a reality Such is the importance of the Mission Vision of the CCC, I believe it is important to include the culture of this company. Because the culture shapes the attitudes behaviours of the everyone that works for the organization. The Coca Cola Company is identified with having a strong culture The CCC has incorporated the culture with their 2020 Vision, which is a long-term strategy aimed to be a RoadMap for understanding the trends and forces that will shape their business of the future. The CCC says it is a preparation of whats to come designed to seize on opportunities once they have been identified. This roadmap is based on winning together with their bottling partners. Values of The CCC Live Our Values: Our values serve as a compass for our actions and describe how we behave in the world. Leadership: The courage to shape a better future Collaboration: Leverage collective genius Integrity: Be real Accountability: If it is to be, it is up to me Passion: Committed to heart mind Diversity: As inclusive as our brands Quality: What we do, we do well Values as we understand, act as a guide for our individual actions and group behaviour. They are the moral compass in our every day interactions with the internal external environment, customers, associates, public, family, friends, and institutions, Rationale The Coca Cola Companys mission, vision, culture, and values, defines and shapes the companys objectives into measurable expressions of what the organization intends to achieve. They include a mixture of hard and soft goals, the hierarchy or top management at Coca Cola Company understands they have to develop a blueprint that employees and the bottling partners can follow and identify with being successful in their business. One striking example comes from their vision statement one of the six Ps, which states, People: be a great place to work, where people are inspired to the best they can be Another vision statement says Partners: nurture a winning network of customers suppliers, together we create a mutual enduring value The CCCs vision, culture and values create an atmosphere of individual attainment and group accomplishment. Where the essence of individual talent is nurtured and encouraged, and group effort is identified as an important contributor to the goals of the CCC. Core activities The value of change plays an important part in the core activities of the Coca Cola Company because the company relies a lot in its suppliers, the bottles companies and the people selling the product. The suppliers are from people they get there ingredients like sugar, coffee, citrus around the world, the water they use in the process of making the beverage to the people in charge of the packaging.. Then come in role the Coca Cola system which is basically where first the company produces the beverages and then comes in play the bottling partners. They are independent bottling partners in charge manufacture, package and distribute the final product. Finally there is the selling the beverages process where the final products are taken to the warehouse for being distributed to retail outlets. The products are then distributed to the customers that are supermarket, convenience stores, restaurants, etc. And also to the vending machines and coolers that are place in strategic locations to reach all customers. And that way the product finally reach the consumers, around 1.6 billion time a day are the products consume Coca Cola Company depends a lot in other part to take the products to the consumers. They treat them with respect and importance and make them realize the importance of their work to the coca cola system. They have been using this system for years and so far had work perfectly. They are focus in the need of the consumers, the customers and the franchise partners; they think in terms of globalization, they are always aware of change. They also use an aggressive marketing strategy. Almost everywhere and in the most important events you can see a Coca Cola logo, they have billboards, commercials, products that will be associated with Coca Cola. Rationale The core activities are an important play for the company because if what makes them different from the rest of the company. They depends a lot in the suppliers the bottling companies and the customers. They play in an important role in making the product as the suppliers give them the prime materials. Then there are the bottling companies that are play an equal significant part, they are the package where the product is deliver and if you can see the bottle of the products of the company are immediately associated with the company. For example Coca Cola has a unique bottle design that everyone in the world with associate or recognized. Value Proposition Coca -Cola Company is an organization which provides value for their consumers and customers. Customers are their energy source for this organization. Creating the value starts with their coca cola products. Hence, this can greatly be achieved by greater variety of brands, pricing, packaging, and affordability. In addition, Coca-Cola products do focus on the customer lifestyle in terms of satisfaction. For example, if a person were to be on a diet, well there is diet coke. Hence, Coca Cola does engage in the customer needs in terms of the product. Coca- Cola has over nearly 400 brands (including water, juice, teas, coffees, energy drinks, and especially sodas) and wants to engage consumers to try something refreshing and new. It really comes down to choices for consumer in terms of coca cola products. Coca-cola brands include Fruitopia, Fanta, Sprite, Dasani, Nestea, Powerade, and many more brands. One of Coca-Colas slogans was Open Happiness. This slogan was represented to the consu mers and was meant to letting the consumers enjoy their products. Coca Cola is able to meet todays non-alcoholic beverage needs of consumers. Coca Colas current value proposition is The Coke Side of Life which represents happiness when you open up a can of coke or any other Coca-Cola product. The Coke Side of Life explains that it is an enjoyable, comfortable, and sociable environment when one actually consumes a Coca-Cola product. Rationale: Coca Cola Company continues to work on research/development and focus on making new products. For instance, a can of coke has a secret formula that will be difficult to imitate. Coca Cola products are significant because they make each product unique. Internal Fit/Factors Porter 5 Forces Analysis Threat of Entrants Coca-Cola does have a lot of competitors in the soft drink industry. The threat of entrants is low for the soft drink industry. There are very few entrants who can compete with Coke. In addition, a barrier to entry when entering the soft drink industry would be a high capital investment. If you dont have that high capital investment it would be hard to enter the industry. Coke nearly earns 48% of the soft drink industry and there are no competitors that are nowhere near coca colas distribution. Coca-Cola has over 500 brands of products which are potentially substitutes. To get the point, the buyer can switch from one product to another at no cost under the Coca Cola brand. Nowadays, consumers are really being health-conscious about their health. So they may not be interested in soft drinks but look at tea, juices, milk and even water. Certainly, Coke does have these products on hand. If Coca Cola decides to increase most of their product by a $0.50 increase, it would be very likely, consumers would buy Pepsi products. Coke can lose its profits margin and can have a major impact on the trademark itself if they increase prices. Price is a huge factor to take into consideration with regards to other entrants. The challenge for this organization today and the future is to focus private companies because they can imitate the products and put cheaper prices. Private companies currently earn 14.4% of the soft drink industry. Having strong barriers prevents from this rising situation to happen. One strong barrier to entrant that prevents from coming would be distribution channels. Coca cola has their products everywhere on their store shelves which make it accessible to consumers while new private companies will have a hard time selling their products to wholesalers, retailers, and distributors. Rationale: Entrants are slowly rising to the carbonated soft drink industry and as organization must find new barriers. Coca-Cola should continue to develop their brand loyalty worldwide and convince consumers to have reliability in their products. Barriers to entry One of the 5 forces that shape the soft drink industry is barriers to entry. The Coca Cola company says on its website it is facing strong competition from well-established global companies and many local participants. For this particular industry, the competitive forces are benign, (favourable). Most of the companies in the soft drink industry are profitable. The Coca Cola companys main competitors are Dr.Pepper, Nestle and Pepsico. These companies definitely have the advantage over there competitors. In porters 5 forces, Porter refers to supply-side economies of scale, where firms such as the CCC and Pepsico can produce at large volumes enjoy lower costs per unit because they can spread fixed costs over more units, employ more efficient technology, or command better terms from suppliers. According to Porters article, supply-side scale economies deter entry by forcing the aspiring entrant either to come in the industry on a large scale, which requires dislodging entrenched competito rs. How does a newcomer circumvent the barriers to soft drink industry? Perhaps create new distribution channels of their own. Creating a niche market for their drink in the form of marketing to a certain segment in the soft drink industry. Competitive Rivalry Competitive rivalry is between two main competitors the Coca Cola Company and Pepsico to satisfy the taste of consumers in this industry. Last month Beverage Digest reported that Pepsi-Colas market share fell 0.5 percentage point while Diet Coke slipped just 0.1 percentage point in the U.S. supermarkets, convenience stores and other retail outlets. The two companies have fought over the past decade to win market share from one another as overall sales dropped. This relates to Porters article on the 5 competitive forces that shape strategy. There is an intense rivalry between these two companies. According to porter high rivalry, limits the profitability of the industry. The Coca Cola Company and Pepsico are competing based on brand image. Power of the buyers One of the 5 forces of porter is buyers the power of the, for Coca Cola Company the power of the buyers is high. They play an important role in the Company process because they are part of the distribution process of the company. They play an important role in distributing the system so it can reach the consumers. They are part of the company and the process. They are part of the strategy used by the company. Power of the suppliers Another of the 5 forces of porter is the suppliers. As well they play an important role in the company process so they have a high power. They have a high power because they also play an important part of the process of the soft drinks. If they decided to boycott the company it will caused them serious damages. There will be a cost to switch suppliers because they will have to build a relationship since 0 and might lost incomes for doing that. External Fit(Diamond E. Model) Management Preferences The senior management team wants to increase the efficiency and effectiveness in the production and bottling sector. With regards to economies of scale, Coke continues to increase production at a low cost. As production of Coca Cola products increase, the cost of producing each unit falls. Moreover, the senior management continues to think about new products (in addition to their 500 products), develop beverages, make new programs and promotions, and meet the needs of customers. The senior management continues to strive for sustainability in their organization. Coca cola recently launched their plant bottle packaging, which basically means they have created their PET bottles from plant based materials. Hence, makes their product 100% recyclable. Muhtar Kent, chief operating officer continues his obligation with sustainability. In 10 years, he plans to reduce coca colas emission by a half. To continue improving performance, Coca-Cola continues to update their technology with regards to quality control. As well continue using better material for their products. In addition, this organization is starting to develop their products in rural areas of the world. The senior management team wants to let consumers know that they are the most trusted carbonated soft drink company and strive to achieve leadership in corporate sustainability. Rationale: The main preferences for Muhtar Kent, CEO, wants to develop and raise their brands, enhance revenue growth and increase productivity within their products. Resources The resources on the Coca Cola Company according to the Diamond E. Model are first the all the resources that the company have to keep on growing and innovating. From the shareholders to the investors, etc. The company has used many of these resources to create healthy products or bio friendly products. They are aware that many of their ingredients comes from the environment and the nature so they are trying to created a friendly environment where the environment is being look after. They have different programs that are meant to help the environments to maintain the natural resources of the land. This is very important because if one of the products they use is gone they wont be able to produce the product anymore. Organization What is the structure, leadership and unique features of the Coca Cola Company in relation to Fry/Killing Diamond E Model. It is what is referred to as the Coca Cola system, which comprises 300 bottling partners worldwide. The coca cola system operates through multiple local channels, the company manufactures and sells its concentrate, beverage bases and syrups to bottling operations, owns the brands and responsible for consumer brand marketing initiatives. The bottling partners manufacture, package, merchandise and distribute the final branded beverages to customers and vending partners, who then sell the products to consumers. It is no wonder the coca cola company has one of the best distribution systems in the world and the ability to penetrate in markets where no company can duplicate is attribute to the structure and leadership at the Coca Cola company. The other unique aspect is the relationship it has with its bottling partners, who in turn works closely with customers, like g rocery stores, restaurants, street vendors, convenience stores, movie theatres, and amusement parks to execute localized strategies developed in partnership with the company. Part2 The strategic job we chose for our organization was Brand manager and the requisite job we chose was a Truck Driver/Vending Machine Supplier. Requisite Job at Coca Cola: Truck Driver/Vending Machine Supplier The requisite job for the Coca Cola company we agreed to use was the truck driver/vending machine supplier. This type of worker requires high school education, has to be licensed to drive a truck, may involve some lifting and moving heavy case of soft drinks. It would be an asset to be in good physical condition. But it is not a requirement. The job incumbent must be personable, because you are dealing with customers and consumers of the company on a daily basis. It would be ideal to hire from within the company a group of truck driver/vending machine suppliers, but due to the supply of this type of worker. We will hire from outside the company. It is easy to hire from a pool of truck driver/vending machine stockers. Duties -Responsible for delivering product and filling vending machines at all points of availability. -Collects and is accountable for money -Check accuracy and stability of the load -Restock machine to proper level, maintaining accuracy in stock levels -Invoice and collection of monies -Securing company assets -Ensure the machines are clean and in good working order -Ensure compliance with regulatory and company policies and procedures -Settle all accounts daily -Ensure product codes and Health codes are adhere to -Report damage to machines -Load supplies in a vehicle, such as a truck -Establish and maintain good customer relations with business owners and operators Knowledge/Skills/Attributes/other attributes of a Truck Driver/Vending Machine Supplier Knowledge -knowledge of the English language -Able to provide customer service and interpersonal relationships on one on one basis. -able to provide and identify customer service needs in a group dynamic situation. -being able to evaluate quickly customer service needs and know how to meet those needs -knowledge of simple mathematics and statistics -knowledgeable of relevant equipment and company safety policies and procedures. -able to understand and read provincial regulations, regarding the safe operation of a vehicle Skills -active listening -speaking -Critical thinking -Coordination -Service orientation -Judgement and Decision-making -Writing Abilities -Oral comprehension -Good Vision -Ability for good oral expression -Speech clarity -Written Comprehension -Control Precision -Depth Perception Other Attributes -Ability to perform and work directly with the Public -Able to deal with external customers -Able to have Face-to-Face discussions -Able to work with a group or team -Is able to work outdoors, exposure to all types of weather -Able to handle the daily contact with the same people in a professional and polite manner Labour Market for a Coca Cola Truck Driver/Vending Machine Supplier Based on the duties and KSAOs of this type of work at the Coca Cola company. We are not just looking to hire any driver. They need to have the experience in dealing with customers and the public. They must be committed to working for the company, because we are going to be testing the potential hirees. The testing will be based on questions about our companys occupational health procedures and equipment operation. The potential hirees will be tested on English language proficiency and Mathematics problem-solving etc They will also be quizzed on customer service skills. What type of interpersonal skills do they possess? This type of job consists of daily contact with customers and business owners. We will give provide further training for those drivers/vending suppliers at the companys expense. Based on these requirements for the job, we will need to find certain individuals that possess a high school diploma, with a clean driving record. The company is confident that we will find the se talented people to come and work for the Coca Cola company. The CCC will provide the additional training to enhance skills such English, written and oral comprehension. The training will also involve a simulation of driving a Coca cola delivery truck. How to handle tight corners for example, or driving on the highway, avoiding dangerous maneuvers, while changing lanes. We at Coca Cola believe we can, attract and retain this type of driver. They will go through Coca Cola University, and once they complete their goals with a certificate. They will have the ability to work anywhere in Canada and the U.S. The company believes by showing that commitment and belief to our people in this case, our truck driver/vending suppliers, we have created a our own market. Benefits The benefits are: -Training: at the Coca cola university for only selected hirees. -Health, Dental, Vision Plan -an employee who requires work-life balance, can ask for it. This might involve parental leave or personal leave program. It is our belief at our company that we have invested time and training for our employees, in order to retain and attract future employees this is one benefit at the coca cola company will a mainstay. We also have wellness programs, so our employees have the option of going into a fitness program at the no cost to them. We have financial planning benefits that our Truck driver/vending suppliers can take advantage of, so they can plan for the a secure future for their families. Compensation We would start the new hirees at $13 hourly rate,work, after one year to $15/hr- enventually topping at $30/hr. The performance pay would be based on individual performance. We are designing the merit bonuses into the compensation package. One form of a bonus incentive could be showing up for work consistently. Or we could gear it to production like serving a number of vending machines or a certain number of clients. The other options are, since this type of work involves excellent customer service skills, we could start to give bonuses to employees who score high on customer service. Another type of bonus, could be about minimizing errors by truck delivery personnel on the most efficient routes for delivering products of Coca cola. We would also encourage the participation of employees on what type of bonuses they like to attain. Research has shown that employees who work to challenging but attainable goals, especially when they had a role in formulating these goals-outperform those without specific work goals Recruitment It is our belief that the best form of recruiting for future truck delivery drivers is externally. Although we will encourage the input of our present employees about their ideas on who would be an ideal candidate, people they know. We trust our employees input, this method of HR forecasting may not be sophisticated but it assures the involvement of our employees for this type of work. It also ensures the employees, that the company has invested this much training and time for their personal development, they become part of decision-making. External recruit reduces our HR costs somewhat, but the investment we make in the training we provide is offset by performance bonuses and compensation packages. The company becomes profitable because of our incentives and the commitment by our truck driver/vending suppliers. PAQ Based on the type of work is involved in becoming a Truck driver/vending specialist, we believe the PAQ method for analyzing specific techniques of this job will be sufficient. It is a structured job analysis checklist of items or job elements used to rate a job. The PAQ method will complement the expected performance standards set in areas, such