Thursday, October 31, 2019

The Dance Theatre of Harlem Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Dance Theatre of Harlem - Essay Example In stark contrast you find Return of the Firebird. The somewhat docile mood that is set in this ballet seems to reign supreme throughout the performance. The main drawback being a total lack of enthusiasm by the performers who seem to be actually controlled by the strings of a puppet master rather than their own minds. This garnered a bored feeling as the ballet wore on, seeming to last a lifetime although it was short by many standards. The movements are thoughtful and full of grace, even past the less then perfect planning. One finds themselves staring at the wonderful fluid movements as passion is arisen in the dancer. The supporting members do little to help this master of the dance, but little help is needed. Fall River Legend more than makes up for the loss in Return of the Firebird. The greatly talented staffs of dancers move as one, making the watcher think of a graceful flock of birds evading a predator. The content of these two ballets is no match. The main point of Return of the Firebird seems to be the same old tired love story, terribly overdone in all forms of theatre. When you consider the dark theme that Fall River Legend brings out, you find yourself in a place that few people have gone with the arts. Drawing from the historical data that is available, the writers were able to portray the event

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Critically Evaluate One Approach to Organisational Culture Change Essay

Critically Evaluate One Approach to Organisational Culture Change - Essay Example ) is one of the major telecom equipment and networking distributors in Russia, started two informational search system called ‘Goods and Services Classifier’ and ‘International Classifier of Inventions’ and these two systems was the foundation for the development of Yandex’s technology. Later, in 1993, Yandex was developed as a Russian language search mechanism by CompTek (Yandex-a, 2011). Finally, in 1997, website was launched. Gradually, the Russian search engine, started bringing new developments and advanced services backed with innovative technologies. During 2000, it started running commercial advertisements through its search engine websites sites which turn to be a major source of sales revenues for the company. Currently, Yandex has become a major search engine for Russian speaking people. After the tremendous response from the domestic market, the company also decided to expand its market internationally. Hence, it starte d its new division in California, known as, ‘Yandex Labs’ and Vish Makhijani, the former executive of Yahoo is head of this division with the responsibility of business development in American market. Yandex’s organisational goal revolves around its core operational activities and its mission i.e. to offer high quality services to its customers. In order to meet this objective, Yandex aims to develop an innovative workplace which leads to enhance the labour productivity. In this process, self-management, goal sharing and loyalty form employees’ end are vital criteria. Company Analysis of Yandex In order to indentify Yandex’s internal strengths and weaknesses, internal analysis of the company is very necessary. Yandex is internet solutions and search engine provider in Russia and other international... This paper deals with a case study of Yandex which is a popular and leading search engine provider. Yandex is a Russia-based company and provides internet and other related services. During 1990, the Arcadia Inc is one of the major telecom equipment and networking distributors in Russia, started two informational search system called ‘Goods and Services Classifier’ and ‘International Classifier of Inventions’ and these two systems was the foundation for the development of Yandex’s technology. This paper has focused on the organisation development intervention for the Yandex, a popular Russian search engine providing company. Technology is the base of the company’s strategic framework, organisation and corporate culture. In order to develop a growth oriented organisation, the company focuses on employees’ freedom for motivating and for encouraging their mind to think innovative ideas. However, for incorporating better changes in organisation development, Yandex must needs to follow a comprehensive OD intervention strategy. In this process, it can follow the model given in figure 3 for bringing positives changes in its organisation culture. However, at first, it must identify and determine key objectives. The objectives for Yandex must include improvements of services by increasing the organisational performances and enhancement of customer satisfaction. In order to achieve these objectives, Yandex must follow a set of guiding principles. In other terms, these principles are the tools for incorporating changes.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Automatic Encoding Detection And Unicode Conversion Engine Computer Science Essay

Automatic Encoding Detection And Unicode Conversion Engine Computer Science Essay In computers, characters are represented using numbers. Initially the encoding schemes were designed to support the English alphabet, which has a limited number of symbols. Later the requirement for a worldwide character encoding scheme to support multi lingual computing was identified. The solution was to come up with a 16 encoding scheme to represent a character so that it can support up to large character set. The current Unicode version contains 107,000 characters covering 90 scripts. In the current context operating systems such as Windows 7, UNIX based operating systems applications such as word processors and data exchange technologies do support this standard enabling internationalization in the IT industry. Even though this standard has been the de facto standard, still there can be seen certain applications using proprietary encoding schemes to represent the data. As an example, famous Sinhala news sites still do not adapt Unicode standard based fonts to represent the conte nt. This causes issues such as the requirement of downloading proprietary fonts, browser dependencies making the efforts of Unicode standard in vain. In addition to the web site content itself there are collections of information included in documents such as PDFs in non Unicode fonts making it difficult to search through search engines unless the search term is entered in that particular font encoding. This has given the requirement of automatically detecting the encoding and transforming into the Unicode encoding in the corresponding language, so that it avoids the problems mentioned. In case of web sites, a browser plug-in implementation to support the automatic non-Unicode to Unicode conversion would eliminate the requirement of downloading legacy fonts, which uses proprietary character encodings. Although some web sites provide the source font information, there are certain web applications, which do not give this information, making the auto detection process more difficult. Hence it is required to detect the encoding first, before it has been fed to the transformation process. This has given the rise to a research area of auto detecting the language encoding for a given text based on language characteristics. This problem will be addressed based on a statistical language encoding detection mechanism. The technique would be demonstrated with the support for all the Sinhala Non Unicode encodings. The implementation for the demonstration will make sure that it is an extendible solution for other languages making it support for any given language based on a future requirement. Since the beginning of the computer age, many encoding schemes have been created to represent various writing scripts/characters for computerized data. With the advent of globalization and the development of the Internet, information exchanges crossing both language and regional boundaries are becoming ever more important. However, the existence of multiple coding schemes presents a significant barrier. The Unicode has provided a universal coding scheme, but it has not so far replaced existing regional coding schemes for a variety of reasons. Thus, todays global software applications are required to handle multiple encodings in addition to supporting Unicode. In computers, characters are encoded as numbers. A typeface is the scheme of letterforms and the font is the computer file or program which physically embodies the typeface. Legacy fonts use different encoding systems for assigning the numbers for characters. This leads to the fact that two legacy font encodings defining different numbers for the same character. This may lead to conflicts with how the characters are encoded in different systems and will require maintaining multiple encoding fonts. The requirement of having a standard to unique character identification was satisfied with the introduction of Unicode. Unicode enables a single software product or a single website to be targeted across multiple platforms, languages and countries without re-engineering. Unicode Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation and handling of text expressed in most of the worlds writing systems. The latest Unicode has more than 107,000 characters covering 90 scripts, which consists of a set of code charts. The Unicode Consortium co-ordinates Unicodes development and the goal is to eventually replace existing character encoding schemes with Unicode and its standard Unicode Transformation Format (UTF) schemes. This standard is being supported in many recent technologies including Programming Languages and modern operating systems. All W3C recommendations have used Unicode as their document character set since HTML 4.0. Web browsers have supported Unicode, especially UTF-8, for many years [4], [5]. Sinhala Legacy Font Conversion Requirement for Web Content Sinhala language usage in computer technology has been present since 1980s but the lack of standards in character representation system resulted in proprietary fonts. Sinhala was added to Unicode in 1998 with the intention of overcoming the limitations in proprietary character encodings. Dinamina, DinaminaUniWeb, Iskoola Pota, KandyUnicode, KaputaUnicode, Malithi Web, Potha are some Sinhala Unicode fonts which were developed so that the numbers assigned with the characters are the same. Still some major news sites which display Sinhala character contents have not adapted the Unicode standards. The Legacy Fonts encoding schemes are used instead causing the conflicts in content representation. In order to minimize the problems, font families were created where the shape of characters only differs but the encoding remains the same. FM Font Family, DL Font Family are some examples where a font family concept is used as a grouping of Sinhala fonts with similar encodings [1], [2]. Adaptation of non Unicode encodings causes a lot of compatibility issues when viewed in different browsers and operating systems. Operating systems such as Windows Vista, Windows7 come with Sinhala Unicode support and do not require external fonts to be installed to read Sinhalese script. Variations of GNU/Linux distributions such as Dabian or Ubuntu also provide Sinhala Unicode support. Enabling non Unicode applications especially web contents with the support for Unicode fonts will allow the users to view contents without installing the legacy fonts. Non Unicode PDF Documents In addition to the contents in the web, there exists a whole lot of government documents which are in PDF format but their contents are encoded with legacy fonts. Those documents would not be searchable through search engines by entering the search terms in Unicode. In order to overcome the problem it is important to convert such documents in to a Unicode font so that they are searchable and its data can be used by other applications consistently, irrespective of the font. As another part of the project this problem would be addressed through a converter tool, which creates the Unicode version of existing PDF document which are currently in legacy font. The Problem Sections 1.3, 1.4 describe two domains in which the Non Unicode to Unicode conversion is required. The conversion involves identification of non-Unicode contents and replacing it with the corresponding Unicode contents. The content replacement requires a Mapping engine, which would do the proper segmentation of the input text and map it with the corresponding Unicode code. The mapping engine can perform the mapping task only if it knows what is the source text encoding. In general, the encoding is specified along with the content so that the mapping engine could feed it directly. However, in certain cases the encoding is not specified along with the content. Hence detecting the encoding through an encoding the detection engine provides a research area, especially with the non-Unicode content. In addition to that, incorporating the detection engine along with a conversion engine would be another part of the problem, to solve the application areas in 1.3, 1.4. Project Scope The system will be initially targeted for Sinhala fonts used by local sites. Later the same mechanism will be extended to support other languages and scripts (Tamil, Devanagaree). Deliverables and outcomes Web Service/Plug-in to Local Language web site Font Conversion which automatically converts website contents from legacy fonts to Unicode. PDF document conversion tool to convert legacy fonts to Unicode In both implementations, the language encoding detection would use the proposed encoding detection mechanism. It can be considered as the core for the implementations in addition to the translation engine which performs the Non Unicode to Unicode mapping. Literature Review Character Encodings Character Encoding Schemes Encoding refers to the process of representing information in some form. Human language is an encoding system by which information is represented in terms of sequences of lexical units, and those in terms of sound or gesture sequences. Written language is a derivative system of encoding by which those sequences of lexical units, sounds or gestures are represented in terms of the graphical symbols that make up some writing system. A character encoding is an algorithm for presenting characters in digital form as sequences of octets. There are hundreds of encodings, and many of them have different names. There is a standardized procedure for registering an encoding. A primary name is assigned to an encoding, and possibly some alias names. For example, ASCII, US-ASCII, ANSI_X3.4-1986, and ISO646-US are different names for an encoding. There are also many unregistered encodings and names that are used widely. The character encoding names are not case sensitive and hence ASCII and Ascii are equivalent [25]. Figure 2.1 Character encoding Example Single Octet Encodings When character repertoire that contains at most 256 characters, assigning a number in the range 0255 to each character and use an octet with that value to represent that character is the most simplest and obvious way. Such encodings, called single-octet or 8-bit encodings, are widely used and will remain important [22]. Multi-Octet Encodings In multi octet encodings more than one octet is used to represent a single character. A simple two-octet encoding is sufficient for a character repertoire that contains at most 65,536 characters. Two octet schemes are uneconomical if the text mostly consists of characters that could be presented in a single-octet encoding. On the other hand, the objective of supporting Universal character set is not achievable with just 65,536 unique codes. Thus, encodings that use a variable number of octets per character are more common. The most widely used among such encodings is UTF-8 (UTF stands for Unicode Transformation Format), which uses one to four octets per character. Principles of Unicode Standard Unicode has used as the universal encoding standard to encode characters in all living languages. To the end, is follows a set of fundamental principles. The Unicode standard is simple and consistent. It does not depend on states or modes for encoding special characters. The Unicode standard incorporates the character sets of many existing standards: For example, it includes Latin-I, character set as its first 256 characters. It includes repertoire of characters from numerous other corporate, national and international standards as well. In modern businesses needs handle characters from a wide variety of languages at the same time. With Unicode, a single internationalization process can produce code that handles the requirements of all the world markets at the same time. The data corruption problems do not occur since Unicode has a single definition for each character. Since it handles the characters for all the world markets in a uniform way, it avoids the complexities of different character code architectures. All of the modern operating systems, from PCs to mainframes, support Unicode now, or are actively developing support for it. The same is true of databases, as well.There are 10 design principles associated with Unicode. Universility The Unicode is designed to be Universal. The repertoire must be large enough to encompass all characters that are likely to be used in general text interchange. Unicode needs to encompass a variety of essentially different collections of characters and writing systems. For example, it cannot postulate that all text is written left to right, or that all letters have uppercase and lowercase forms, or that text can be divided into words separated by spaces or other whitespace. Efficient Software does not have to maintain state or look for special escape sequences, and character synchronization from any point in a character stream is quick and unambiguous. A fixed character code allows for efficient sorting, searching, display, and editing of text. But with Unicode efficiency there exist certain tradeoffs made specially with the storage requirements needing four octets for each character. Certain representation forms such as UTF-8 format requiring linear processing of the data stream in order to identify characters. Unicode contains a large amount of characters and features that have been included only for compatibility with other standards. This may require preprocessing that deals with compatibility characters and with different Unicode representations of the same character (e.g., letter à © as a single character or as two characters). Characters, not glyphs Unicode assigns code points to characters as abstractions, not to visual appearances. A character in Unicode represents an abstract concept rather than the manifestation as a particular form or glyph. As shown in Figure 2.2, the glyphs of many fonts that render the Latin character A all correspond to the same abstract character a. Figure 2.2: Abstract Latin Letter a and Style Variants Another example is the Arabic presentation form. An Arabic character may be written in up to four different shapes. Figure 2.3 shows an Arabic character written in its isolated form, and at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of a word. According to the design principle of encoding abstract characters, these presentation variants are all represented by one Unicode character. Figure 2.3: Arabic character with four representations The relationship between characters and glyphs is rather simple for languages like English: mostly each character is presented by one glyph, taken from a font that has been chosen. For other languages, the relationship can be much more complex routinely combining several characters into one glyph. Semantics Characters have well-defined meanings. When the Unicode standard refers to semantics, it often means the properties of characters, such spacing, combinability, and directionality, rather than what the character really means. Plain text Unicode deals with plain texti.e., strings of characters without formatting or structuring information (except for things like line breaks). Logical order The default representation of Unicode data uses logical order of data, as opposed to approaches that handle writing direction by changing the order of characters. Unification The principle of uniqueness was also applied to decide that certain characters should not be encoded separately. Unicode encodes duplicates of a character as a single code point, if they belong to the same script but different languages. For example, the letter à ¼ denoting a particular vowel in German is treated as the same as the letter à ¼ in Spanish. The Unicode standard uses Han unification to consolidate Chinese, Korean, and Japanese ideographs. Han unification is the process of assigning the same code point to characters historically perceived as being the same character but represented as unique in more than one East Asian ideographic character standard. These results in a group of ideographs shared by several cultures and significantly reduces the number of code points needed to encode them. The Unicode Consortium chose to represent shared ideographs only once because the goal of the Unicode standard was to encode characters independent of the languages that use them. Unicode makes no distinctions based on pronunciation or meaning; higher-level operating systems and applications must take that responsibility. Through Han unification, Unicode assigned about 21,000 code points to ideographic characters instead of the 120,000 that would be required if the Asian languages were treated separately. It is true that the same charact er might look slightly different in Chinese than in Japanese, but that difference in appearance is a font issue, not a uniqueness issue. Figure 2.4: Han Unification example The Unicode standard allows for character composition in creating marked characters. It encodes each character and diacritic or vowel mark separately, and allows the characters to be combined to create a marked character. It provides single codes for marked characters when necessary to comply with preexisting character standard. Dynamic composition Characters with diacritic marks can be composed dynamically, using characters designated as combining marks. Equivalent sequences Unicode has a large number of characters that are precomposed forms, such as à ©. They have decompositions that are declared as equivalent to the precomposed form. An application may still treat the precomposed form and the decomposition differently, since as strings of encoded characters, they are distinct. Convertibility Character data can be accurately converted between Unicode and other character standards and specifications. South Asian Scripts The scripts of South Asia share so many common features that a side-by-side comparison of a few will often reveal structural similarities even in the modern letterforms. With minor historical exceptions, they are written from left to right. They are all abugidas in which most symbols stand for a consonant plus an inherent vowel (usually the sound /a/). Word-initial vowels in many of these scripts have distinct symbols, and word-internal vowels are usually written by juxtaposing a vowel sign in the vicinity of the affected consonant. Absence of the inherent vowel, when that occurs, is frequently marked with a special sign [17]. Another designation is preferred in some languages. As an example in Hindi, the word hal refers to the character itself, and halant refers to the consonant that has its inherent vowel suppressed. The virama sign nominally serves to suppress the inherent vowel of the consonant to which it is applied; it is a combining character, with its shape varying from script to script. Most of the scripts of South Asia, from north of the Himalayas to Sri Lanka in the south, from Pakistan in the west to the easternmost islands of Indonesia, are derived from the ancient Brahmi script. The oldest lengthy inscriptions of India, the edicts of Ashoka from the third century BCE, were written in two scripts, Kharoshthi and Brahmi. These are both ultimately of Semitic origin, probably deriving from Aramaic, which was an important administrative language of the Middle East at that time. Kharoshthi, written from right to left, was supplanted by Brahmi and its derivatives. The descendants of Brahmi spread with myriad changes throughout the subcontinent and outlying islands. There are said to be some 200 different scripts deriving from it. By the eleventh century, the modern script known as Devanagari was in ascendancy in India proper as the major script of Sanskrit literature. The North Indian branch of scripts was, like Brahmi itself, chiefly used to write Indo-European languages such as Pali and Sanskrit, and eventually the Hindi, Bengali, and Gujarati languages, though it was also the source for scripts for non-Indo-European languages such as Tibetan, Mongolian, and Lepcha. The South Indian scripts are also derived from Brahmi and, therefore, share many structural characteristics. These scripts were first used to write Pali and Sanskrit but were later adapted for use in writing non-Indo-European languages including Dravidian family of southern India and Sri Lanka. Sinhala Language Characteristics of Sinhala The Sinhala script, also known as Sinhalese, is used to write the Sinhala language, by the majority language of Sri Lanka. It is also used to write the Pali and Sanskrit languages. The script is a descendant of Brahmi and resembles the scripts of South India in form and structure. Sinhala differs from other languages of the region in that it has a series of prenasalized stops that are distinguished from the combination of a nasal followed by a stop. In other words, both forms occur and are written differently [23]. Figure 2.5: Example for prenasalized stop in Sinhala In addition, Sinhala has separate distinct signs for both a short and a long low front vowel sounding similar to the initial vowel of the English word apple, usually represented in IPA as U+00E6 à ¦ latin small letter ae (ash). The independent forms of these vowels are encoded at U+0D87 and U+0D88. Because of these extra letters, the encoding for Sinhala does not precisely follow the pattern established for the other Indic scripts (for example, Devanagari). It does use the same general structure, making use of phonetic order, matra reordering, and use of the virama (U+0DCA sinhala sign al-lakuna) to indicate conjunct consonant clusters. Sinhala does not use half-forms in the Devanagari manner, but does use many ligatures. Sinhala Writing System The Sinhala writing system can be called an abugida, as each consonant has an inherent vowel (/a/), which can be changed with the different vowel signs. Thus, for example, the basic form of the letter k is à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡ ka. For ki, a small arch is placed over the à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡: à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢. This replaces the inherent /a/ by /i/. It is also possible to have no vowel following a consonant. In order to produce such a pure consonant, a special marker, the hal kirÄ «ma has to be added: à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…   . This marker suppresses the inherent vowel. Figure 2.6: Character associative Symbols in Sinhala Historical Symbols. Neither U+0DF4 sinhala punctuation kunddaliya nor the Sinhala numerals are in general use today, having been replaced by Western-style punctuation and Western digits. The kunddaliya was formerly used as a full stop or period. It is included for scholarly use. The Sinhala numerals are not presently encoded. Sinhala and Unicode In 1997, Sri Lanka submitted a proposal for the Sinhala character code at the Unicode working group meeting in Crete, Greece. This proposal competed with proposals from UK, Ireland and the USA. The Sri Lankan draft was finally accepted with slight modifications. This was ratified at the 1998 meeting of the working group held at Seattle, USA and the Sinhala Code Chart was included in Unicode Version 3.0 [2]. It has been suggested by the Unicode consortium that ZWJ and ZWNJ should be introduced in Orthographic languages like Sinhala to achieve the following: 1. ZWJ joins two or more consonants to form a single unit (conjunct consonants). 2. ZWJ can also alter shape of preceding consonants (cursiveness of the consonant). 3. ZWNJ can be used to disjoin a single ligature into two or more units. Encoding auto Detection Browser and auto-detection In designing auto detection algorithms to auto detect encodings in web pages it needs to depend on the following assumptions on input data [24]. Input text is composed of words/sentences readable to readers of a particular language. Input text is from typical web pages on the Internet which is not an ancient dead language. The input text may contain extraneous noises which have no relation to its encoding, e.g. HTML tags, non-native words (e.g. English words in Chinese documents), space and other format/control characters. Methods of auto detection The paper[24] discusses about 3 different methods for detecting the encoding of text data. Coding Scheme Method In any of the multi-byte encoding coding schemes, not all possible code points are used. If an illegal byte or byte sequence (i.e. unused code point) is encountered when verifying a certain encoding, it is possible to immediately conclude that this is not the right guess. Efficient algorithm to detecting character set using coding scheme through a parallel state machine is discussed in the paper [24]. For each coding scheme, a state machine is implemented to verify a byte sequence for this particular encoding. For each byte the detector receives, it will feed that byte to every active state machine available, one byte at a time. The state machine changes its state based on its previous state and the byte it receives. In a typical example, one state machine will eventually provide a positive answer and all others will provide a negative answer. Character Distribution Method In any given language, some characters are used more often than other characters. This fact can be used to devise a data model for each language script. This is particularly useful for languages with a large number of characters such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean. The tests were carried out with the data for simplified Chinese encoded in GB2312, traditional Chinese encoded in Big, Japanese and Korean. It was observed that a rather small set of coding points covers a significant percentage of characters used. Parameter called Distribution Ration was defined and used for the purpose separating the two encodings. Distribution Ratio = the Number of occurrences of the 512 most frequently used characters divided by the Number of occurrences of the rest of the characters. . Two-Char Sequence Distribution Method In languages that only use a small number of characters, we need to go further than counting the occurrences of each single character. Combination of characters reveals more language-characteristic information. 2-Char Sequence as 2 characters appearing immediately one after another in input text, and the order is significant in this case. Just as not all characters are used equally frequently in a language, 2-Char Sequence distribution also turns out to be extremely language/encoding dependent. Current Approaches to Solve Encoding Problems Siyabas Script The SiyabasScript is as an attempt to develop a browser plugin, which solves the problem using legacy font in Sinhala news sites [6]. It is an extension to Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome web browsers. This solution was specifically designed for a limited number of target web sites, which were having the specific fonts. The solution had the limitation of having to reengineer the plug-in, if a new version of the browser is released. The solution was not global since that id did not have the ability to support a new site which is using a Sinhala legacy font. In order to overcome that, the proposed solution will identify the font and encodings based on the content but not on site. There is a chance that the solution might not work if the site decided to adapt another legacy font, as it cannot detect the encoding scheme changes. There is a significant delay in the conversion process. The user would notice the display of the content with characters which are in legacy font before they g et converted to the Unicode. This performance delay can be also identified as an area to improve in the solution. The conversion process does not provide the exact conversion specially when the characters need to be combined in Unicode. à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ´Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ = à  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¯Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ º à  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  .à  Ã‚ ¶Ã¢â‚¬â„¢.à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ´Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬Å". à  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¸Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ » à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¸Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ­Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ , à  Ã‚ ¶Ã…“à  Ã‚ ·Ã‹Å"à  Ã‚ ·Ã‹Å"à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ´Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…   à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ´Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ­Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…   à  Ã‚ ¶Ã¢â‚¬ ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ©Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‹Å"à  Ã‚ ·Ã‹Å" à  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã†â€™Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ »Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ º, à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡ à  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ »Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…   , à  Ã‚ ¶Ã¢â‚¬ ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã†â€™Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ »Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ½Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ºÃƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬  , à  Ã‚ ¶Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ +à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ »Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ºÃƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…   à  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ± à  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬Å"à  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ » ,à  Ã‚ ¶Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬Å"à  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ »Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ©Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã…“à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ «Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ºÃƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã… ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¯Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬Å" ,à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¯`à  Ã‚ ¶Ã…“ à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ´Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ¯Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â‚¬  à  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ºÃƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…  Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¶Ã‚ ±Ãƒ  Ã‚ ·Ã…   can be mentioned as the examples of words of such conversion issues. The plug-in supports the Sinhala Unicode conversion for the sites, and But the other websites mentioned in the paper does not get properly converted to Sinhala with Firefox version 3.5.17. Aksharamukha Asian Script Converter Aksharamukha is a South: South-East-Asian script convertor tool. It supports transliteration between Brahmi derived Asian scripts. It also has the functionality to transliterate web pages from Indic Scripts to other scripts. The Convertor scrapes the HTML page, then transliterates the Indic Scripts and displays the HTML. There are certain issues in the tool when it comes to alignment with the original web page. Misalignments and missing images, unconverted hyperlinks are some of them. Figure 2.7: Aksharamukha Asian Script Converter Corpus-based Sinhala Lexicon The Lexicon of a language is its vocabulary including higher order constructs such as words and expressions. In order to detect the encoding of a given text this can be used as a supporting tool. Corpus based Sinhala lexicon has nearly 35000 entries based on a corpus consisting of 10 million words from diverse genres such as technical writing, creative writing and news reportage [7], [9]. The text distribution across genres is given in table 1. Table 2.1: Distribution of Words across Genres [7] Genre Number of words Percentage of words Creative Writing 2340999 23% Technical Writing 4357680 43% News Reportage 3433772 34% N-gram-based language, script, and encoding scheme-detection N-Gram refers to N character sequences and is used as a well-established technique used in classifying language of text documents. The method detects language, script, and encoding schemes using a target text document encoded by computer by checking how many byte sequences of the target match the byte sequences that can appear in the texts belonging to a language, script, and encoding scheme. N-grams are extracted from a string, or a document, by a sliding window that shifts one character at a time. Sinhala Enabled Mobile Browser for J2ME Phones Mobile phone usage is rapidly increasing throughout the world as well as in Sri Lanka. It has become the most ubiquitous communication device. Accessing internet through the mobile phone has become a common activity of people especially for messaging and news items. In J2ME enabled phones Sinhala Unicode support yet to be developed. They do not allow installation of fonts outside. Hence those devices will not be able to display Unicode contents, especially on the web, until Unicode is supported by the platform. Integrating the Unicode viewing support will provide a good opportunity to carry the technology to remote areas if it can be presented in the native language. If this is facilitated, in addition to the urban crowd, people from rural areas will be able to subscribe to a daily newspaper with their mobile. One major advantage of such an application is that it will provide a phone model independent solution which supports any Java enabled phone. Cillion is a Mini browser software which shows Unicode contents in J2ME phones. This software is an application developed with the fonts integrated wh

Friday, October 25, 2019

Essay on Internet Privacy - Cookies and Internet Privacy :: Exploratory Essays Research Papers

Cookies and Internet Privacy    Student Josà © Amador likes to use his email account at "I find paper so obsolete," he says. Amador is not worried about the privacy of this account. Perhaps he and the many other people that use yahoo email should be concerned, however. All users of Yahoo mail are having their actions tracked.    Yahoo monitors the actions of users, in part, by using "cookies." Cookies are small files that record visits to web pages. When you open up a cookie dispensing web page, the web server sends one or more of these files to your browser. The cookies will usually contain a number that is unique to that browser. Then the next time that this browser opens that particular page, the web site will both send a new cookie and retrieve the old one. This makes it possible, for sites to compile lists of how often visitors go to a particular page as well as when they visit it.    By themselves, cookies cannot reveal the identity of the user. All these files can do is store information about domain names and the rough location of the visitor. That said, if the site requires registration and a sign in -as is the case with yahoo email, for example- then site administrators can combine the two streams of data with ease. Cookies also cannot send viruses. They are only text files thus preventing that danger. Readers who want to view the cookies stored on their browser should search for a file called on cookies.txt on PCs or a file called MagicCookie on Macs.    The first browser that could handle cookies was Netscape Navigator 1.0. Cookies have become commonplace on the web since that browser first came out in 1995. By one account, 26 of the top 100 web sites utilize these files. Sites that use cookies include AltaVista, all pages on the GeoCities domain, and the web version of the New York Times. The New York Times is a lot like Yahoo mail in that the acceptance of cookies is required. Most sites, however, do not require browsers to accept cookies.    Web site administrators say that the primary purpose of cookies is not to track Internet surfing habits. Rather they argue that cookies allow users to customize their experiences on the web. Services like My Yahoo would not work nearly as smoothly without cookies.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Pro Hunting

The calls to ban the practice of hunting if enacted will sound a death knell to a sport that since the 16th century has become an integral part of our culture. It is a culture that has over time elicited interest in thousand of participants all over Britain. I believe this practice should be upheld not just for its cultural values but also for its economic and sporting importance.Taking a look at the history of foxhunting I become more convinced that this event should be upheld due to the satisfaction that it has been according to the participants. The history of fox hunting dates back to the 16th century, originally as a form of pest control and was carried out by English farmers. This was done by the farmers to protect their livestock, as foxes had become a real threat to their goats and chickens.In some places in England, fox hunting remains largely a form of pest control. Should this practice be allowed I would not fathom how the opponents of fox hunting expect these farmers to s afeguard their source of livelihood. I would not want to see the efforts of these farmers go into waste to satisfy the whims of some few animal rights crusaders. These foxes pose a threat not only to the humans but also to domesticated animals that are more productive and have received months of tending and feeding. I don’t see any other way that these foxes can be eliminated and the threat they pose to humans be reduced significantly. A look at their eating habits leaves me with a lot of disdain for foxes. Foxes can kill a whole pack of chickens while in the real sense it has an appetite of only one. This leads to wastage and should not be condoned; hunting them down remains the most effective way of reducing these incidences( Dagmar Orendi, February 2004.I support fox hunting in the belief that in the long run it plays a great role in ecological balancing. A cross analysis of the foxes in their natural habitats indicate that they have no real predators in the wilderness. Th eir population if unchecked can rapidly increase to an unmanageable level. Man is their only real threat and is the only entity that ensures that only the best survives. I agree with the argument that has been passed on over time that fox hunting apart form controlling the population ensures the culling of the least desirable ones.   In hunting only the weak succumb to the human’s fury.The strong and the fast get to survive and see another down. Hence the hunting and killing of foxes should not be demonized or be viewed as an activity that seeks to fulfill the human’s sadistic tendencies. I am convinced that this activity plays a great role in the ecology more than we can fathom. In the wilderness it is survival for the fittest and hunting isolates the weak from the strong ensuring only the strong breed survives.I am a great lover of sports, not only for the role that it plays in bringing individuals of varied and diversified social upbringing together but for the ph ysical fitness that it instills in those that engage in it. Disregarding its original role and intentions, fox hunting is a sport that continues to create an effective forum for interactions and give individuals a chance to excise their limbs and minds. This is a sport that has evolved from far but still tends to maintain some of the traditional trends. In hunting the foxes, the hunters may opt to do so on foot, on horsebacks, on bicycles or using four wheels drive vehicles.Regardless of the means used, it is a perfect opportunity for the hunters to engage in outdoor activities and enjoy their fun in the rough terrain. I would feel sad to see this sort of an activity banned and the joy of spectating and engaging in the sport diminished. Watching people foxhunt on the screen or hearing the tales of these expeditions gives me thrills and a yearning to participate in them too. By banning these practices, the authority seeks to deny us the excitement and adventure that comes with these sports either when you hear from third parties or when you have physically participated in the fete.Fox hunting is an economic venture in that it not only seeks to reduce livestock losses but also increase the number of jobs created. It is an economic activity that is relied upon by significant number of people. I shudder at the thought of these individuals losing their jobs over what the opponents call ‘cruelty’ to animals.I don’t understand their argument when they purport to advocate for animals, while at the same time failing to put into consideration the number of households and livelihoods that rely on fox hunting, either as a direct source of employment or due to reduced loss of their livestock. I have looked at a recent study that was seeking to establish the number of individuals that depend on fox hunting as a source of employment in the United Kingdom. The findings were interesting. Over 7,000 people fully rely on fox hunting for their living. I see no reason why we should legislate against fox hunting and put into jeopardy the lives of several thousands over arguments that do not hold any water.Although I have an unshakeable believe that fox hunting should not be outlawed, I cannot fail to look at some of the arguments brought forth by the opponents of fox hunting. Animal rights activists are convinced that fox hunting should be outlawed fully and perpetrators thrown behind bars or fined. They cite a few reasons that also may be put into consideration but do not warrant outlawing the event. They claim that fox hunting is cruel considering the fact that the foxes end up being shredded into parts by the hunting dog. It is a very distressing affair to the foxes as they undergo a lot of suffering. They argue that fox hunting is cruel as the foxes do not die instantly but have to undergo a lot of pain.I don’t find this argument strong in any way and deserving any form of attention. In the first place, foxes are hunted not prim arily for sport and excitement but to reduce the threat facing the livestock. To the animal rights activists, it looks that the quality of human life and their source of livelihood is not important, what is important is that the foxes should not undergo suffering even when the strike at the livestock.A cost benefit analysis of fox hunting reveals that it has more social and economic benefits than losses. In my opinion, I find that fox hunting is a venture that seeks to kill more than two birds with a single stone. Economically, the practice is beneficial to the society as it is a natural way for pest control. Socially, it provides us with an important forum whereby people in the society can interact and get to share out their experiences. The interaction play a great role in ensuring unity and cohesion and in one more way than one ensures stability in the community. As a sport, it is a practice that gives people an opportunity to engage in physical outdoor sporting A sport that not only puts their physique in to test but also their minds. I strongly believe that these and more are strong reasons why fox hunting should not be outlawed.BibliographyDagmar Orendi, February 2004. The debate about fox hunting. A social and political analysis. Retrieved on 13/10/07 from 2007.Hunting with dogs. Politics unspun. Retrieved in 13/10/07 from, R.J Fox Hunting in Scotland. Research Note RN99-17, Scottish parliament Information Centre, EdinburghMacmillan, D.C 1999. The Economic Impact of a Ban on Fox Hunting in Scotland. Research Paper 99/3, Environmental and Rural Resource Economics Group, University of Aberdeen.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Art Appreciation Essay

Ancient art is art from cultures of ancient societies such as China, Rome, Greece and Egypt and most of these types of art shows gods, goddesses and pharaohs. The Egyptian art work is usually clear and simple that is put together with simple lines and flat areas of color that show order and balance. Most of the art from china show religious rituals and geomancy and it also shows continuity between ancient and modern times. Greek art has a lot of pottery, sculpture and architecture art and are will known for its standing figures. Roman art seems to show beauty and nobility with an expression of life-like qualities. The first painting is by Lorenzo Lotto and is called Venus and Cupid and is oil on canvas painting and shows Venus sitting on a dark blue satin cloth with her weight resting on her arm. Her color is a pretty off white with a ribbon around her chest called diaphanous stophein which is worn by new brides. There is a brown shell hanging above her head which represents her birth from the sea and the flowers shown on the bottom half of her body represent a symbol of love. The head dress she is wearing is decorated with gems and pearls that rest perfectly on her red hair. She is holding a wreath with incense burning while cupid is peeing through the wreath towards her. Cupid is a short figure with wings on his back with brown curly hair with a devilish look upon his face. The room has red cloth drape upon the back wall that accent the painting with all the other colors in harmony. This artist was portraying love and marriage and the room was more than likely a bride’s chamber in this two dememenional piece of art and is representational of sexuality, vitality and happiness. This piece could be a little controversial and is truly in the eyes of the beholder. Cupid and Venus. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. wtfarthistory. com The second painting is by Paul Gauguin which is oil on canvas painting with stretch wood and is called Ia Orana Maria (Hail Mary) which was inspired by Polynesian religious beliefs and is of an angel who revealed Mary and Jesus who are Tahitian to two other Tahitian women. Mary is wearing a red dress with flowers and Jesus is sitting on her shoulders naked and the two of them seem to have a halo around their heads. The other two women are shown looking at Mary and Jesus with wraps around their lower bodies and the upper half is exposing their breast. The painting have a jungle like atmophere with flowering trees and a dark blue path and emerald green with the foreground and bananas of the left of Mary. This two demensional piece is representational of religion, mystery and revelation and of the Tahitian culture. This piece is very colorful with reds, blues, greens and yellows that come together beautifully.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Shakespeares Theme of Power in Act 1 Essays

Shakespeares Theme of Power in Act 1 Essays Shakespeares Theme of Power in Act 1 Essay Shakespeares Theme of Power in Act 1 Essay There have been suspicions of Shakespeares last play written in 1612, named: Cardenio- a lost play. However the play we know today as the last written in 1611 is The Tempest.Shakespeares main focus was the Theme of Power in The Tempest. Throughout the play the audience encounters power possessed by different characters enabling them to force another character in particular, against their own will. An example of this was the usurpation of Prosperos Dukedom, forced by the King Alonso and his accomplice Antonio. Although Prospero demonstrated his wizardry as an element of power to cause the shipwreck in the opening scene, it had evoked the audiences anticipated responses especially the colonisation of the island.Power is a symbol of competence substantially used to combat against usurpation. It is also expressed through language to convey the feelings of a character. Boatswain defied his noble; challenging his authority and against the inevitable power of nature: Blow till thou burst th y wind. His use of power was selfish as well to disrespect the King; a lack of patriotism. Atmospheric power manifests the scenery of the shipwreck as a dramatic technique to reinforce the audience responses of a vicious storm; hence the link to the title The Tempest.The writer immediately establishes a connection between the Tempestuous noise of thunder and lightning and the tone of language proposed by the characters. Pathetic fallacy arouses our interest of the anger conveyed during the storm to emphasise emotions: A pox o your throat- Sebastian challenges Boatswains power. The effect could be further emphasised if the stage is directed to have a sound of roaring thunder at the instant because it mimics anger.Perhaps the most interesting theme of Power in the first Act is Prosperos discussion about the betrayal of his brother Antonio who usurped his Dukedom. Prospero has used detailed descriptions of Antonio the produce a powerful impression of evil conveyed as Miranda listens. A ntonio is portrayed as a false uncle, this trickery reinforces the betrayal that usurped Prospero. In contrast to his hate for his brother, there is evidence of power of love to his brother: Of all the world I loved- this highlights the betrayal because it deals with the relationship of trust with Antonio and how contradicting it was to be usurped. A use of a metaphor compares Antonio to the image of an ivy- and the actions expressed: sucked my verdure out ont- this portrays Antonio as a living parasite on Prospero. These images help us understand how full of hatred Prospero is towards Antonios treachery. In certain verses Prospero ensures that Miranda is listening: Dost thou attend me?- the audience understands that Prospero could be losing his temper when his daughter is not paying attention; it also denotes that Prospero is consumed by the hate he feels for Antonios betrayal, this is an obsession from him to discuss the betrayal in great detail to Miranda.Prospero describes how t hirsty Antonio was for power: So dry he was for sway.- his downfall of Dukedom aroused his brothers interest: Hence his ambition growing. We understand that hunger for power has tempted the conspiracy of usurpation along with Antonios accomplice Alonso to overthrow Prospero. We learn that Antonio has no sense of guilt for overthrowing Prospero. This underlines the power of manipulation, as he would kill Alonso so that Sebastien will become king. Antonio continually uses metaphors to express his lack of conscience: If twere a kybe Twould put me to my slipper; if he had felt pain, he would not have felt God in his heart. The uses of metaphors inspire his malicious plans for power which is thoroughly conveyed through his determination.Shakespeare also intended to portray power in Prospero through the use of the character Ariel who is his slave. The words Ariel chooses to present himself to Prospero underlines the hierarchy of importance: All hail, great master. Ariel also treats Prospe ro with respect and does not curse him in contrast to Caliban. To thy strong bidding task Ariel- he respects his authority and accepts Prosperos commands. But Ariel intends to be released from Prospero and reminds him of his good deeds: Remember I have done thee worthy service- Ariels ambition is his freedom and not ruled by a master of power. This impression draws our intention to usurpation with a direct comparison with Caliban.There is also power of manipulation when Ariel had sent the King and his nobles to sleep. Since Antonio and Sebastian were convinced to kill the King for Sebastian to claim the throne, Ariel had woken the sleepers in time before the danger of the assassination. In this scene we also see the enduring power of Antonios malicious plans despite Alonso was his accomplice to overthrow Prospero.Caliban claims Prospero had usurped him. Despite his powerlessness he chants a false cursing on him: A south-west blow on ye. His false power engages the readers interest o f Calibans anger over Prospero. Miranda also mimics Prosperos power: Abhorred slave, perhaps she is following her fathers footsteps of sorcery. She uses words to give images of violence: savage and vile race- it helps us understand the hideous and violent nature Caliban has. Caliban has such physical strength of power but is incompetent against Prosperos wizardry: I must obey; his art is of such power.Caliban again had made a cursing of Prospero re-iterating his demonstration of his false power. He accuses that even minor offences are tormented against him, which perhaps is an infringement of his dignity: For every trifle are they set upon me. We are reminded of Calibans powerlessness when he fears that Trinculo may be a spirit from Prospero. On the other contrast, Trinculo hides under the cloak of Caliban who fears the power of the weather: neither bush nor shrub to bear off any weather. It was a deep belief that Gods mood was portrayed by the weather that threatens Trinculo.We gai n insight to the power of love between Ferdinand and Miranda, when they first meet each other. Miranda believes Ferdinand is a spirit- she is admiring Ferdinands beauty and is enthralled. She falls in love for the first time with a stranger; perhaps Shakespeare intended to use a power of love not as a weakness but strength to bind two characters together which is an everlasting relationship that influences the play.Shakespeare explores power when Prospero accuses Ferdinand of usurping him: Thou dost here usurp. Prospero describes Ferdinand as a spy which explains the significance of power used for evil purposes to overthrow him. He also persuades Miranda hes a traitor- creates the impression of betrayal imitating Antonio and Alonso as his accomplice. As Prospero knows Ferdinand is the son of the King, he would believe he is following his fathers steps and so have an identical mind to usurp. Ferdinand believes the King is dead and so he is now King, Prospero cannot allow his power to take control of him. On the other hand Miranda sees Ferdinand in a different perspective- his handsomeness reflects his innocent character. She is therefore bewildered: Why speaks my father so ungently? Shakespeare has indicated that Ferdinand has the desire to love Miranda by his warm compliments to her: Ill make you The Queen of Naples.Prosperos wizardry to stop Ferdinand from moving is a demonstration of his power. Mirandas fear of Ferdinand is portrayed through her words: Make not too rash a trial of him- it illustrates how Prosperos power can be terrifying and tragic for Miranda with a direct link to the beginning scene of her sorrow for the sailors in the shipwreck. Prospero indeed has power over his daughter Miranda: Silence!- there is no questioning that Miranda must obey her father. Furthermore, Prospero could possibly be taking far too much power to control his daughter. He had used his wizardry to make her sleep before the appearance of Ariel- possibly Shakespeare wanted to convey Prosperos impatience.There is Power of Love when Miranda reassures Ferdinand to console him of the incident. Be of comfort- we understand that Miranda cares for Ferdinand. However the Love between the two characters deepens and they both declare love for each other. Perhaps this Power of Love is a microcosm between foreign settlers and Europeans that have a bonding relationship in the 17th Century. Shakespeare particularly intended to portray this power of love that establishes a connection in the culture of our society today. On the other hand Prospero doubts this love between the two: Poor worm, thou art infected. This depiction of love is seen as a disease in Prosperos eyes as if Miranda had caught it. Possibly Prospero had called Miranda a worm to express her vulnerability and the powerless nature of her that Prospero so much controlled her.Shakespeares intention of alcohol used to pollute the minds of consumers is conveyed through Stephano who first introduces it in the play. Perhaps this scene is intended to portray a microcosm of the wide spreading of alcohol in Europe. Alcohol is an addiction to Stephano: but heres my comfort. Stephano tempts Caliban to drink the alcohol as well which poisons his mind into drunkenness. There is a handling of power from Stephano as Caliban intends to become his slave, since he believes that he is a God. Perhaps this is an interpretation of slaves being exchanged for worthy masters that Shakespeare wanted to send a message to. This mimics Calibans loyalty and trust to Prospero when they first met, that Caliban was honest and loyal to him as a servant. However Trinculo denies this power from Stephano : A most ridiculous monster, to make wonder of a poor drunkard.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Famous People Essays

Famous People Essays Famous People Essay Famous People Essay People can become famous for discovering something, acting, singing, dancing and many other things. Some of them become well-known during their life, the others after their death. There are many famous people all over the world and one of them is Arthur Nobel who I would like to talk about today. ALFRED BERNHARD NOBEL – a Swedish chemist, one of the most famous discoverers of the 19th century, was born in 1833 in the capital city of Sweden – Stockholm. His father, Immanuel Nobel, was a chemical engineer and had a private building company in Stockholm. Unfortunately, his company went bankrupt when Alfred was 9 years old and the whole family moved to live in Russia, in Petrograd. Alfred’s father started producing equipment for the Russian army that helped their financial situation. Alfred had private teachers and when he was 17 years old he spoke 5 languages fluently – Swedish, Russian, English, French and German. He was interested in English literature, poems, architecture, physic and chemistry. He also wrote some poems and theatre plays. His father sent him around the world to get a better education and more experience. Alfred visited the USA, Sweden, Germany and France. In Paris he worked in a chemical laboratory with professor Pelouza. There he met an Italian chemist, Sebrer, who discovered nitro-glycerine. In 1863 Alfred and his family moved back to Stockholm. His father opened a new factory for producing nitro-glycerine in a small town nearby, called Helene-Borg. A year later the factory exploded. It was a big tragedy because many people were killed including Alfred’s younger brother Emil. His father died a couple of month later. 3 years later Alfred discovered dynamite. : The same year he opened his own company called Alfred Nobel Co. He opened companies and laboratories in 20 countries including the Czech and Slovak Republic. He became very rich, lived in Paris and because he was always very busy (he made 355 patents) he never got married. He died at the age of 53 (in 1896) in Italy. A year before his death he wrote a will where he asked that all his possessions (32 million Swedish crones) should be given to the Swedish Academy of science. He asked the academy to award a prize once a year to the person who showed the biggest contribution to humanity. It is now called the Noble Prize and the award ceremony is in the 10th of December at 4:30pm the same date and time of his death. Today the prize consists of a gold medal, certificate and prize money. There are 6 different prizes given: 1 The prize for Physics (awarded by the Swedish academy) 2 The prize for Chemistry (awarded by the Swedish academy) 3 The prize for Physiology or Medicine (awarded by the Caroline Medical institute Stockholm) 4 The prize for Literature (awarded by the Swedish academy) 5 The prize for Peace (awarded in Oslo, Norway) The prize for Economics (awarded by the Bank of Sweden) All the prizes are given personally by the King of Sweden however; the Prize for peace is given by the King of Norway in Oslo. Another famous person is the Pope – Jan Pavol II. His real name is Karol Vostil and comes from Poland. He has been the head of the Catholic Church for 30 years. He has visited lots of countries included Slovakia. He tries to unite religions, to keep peace and love amongst people. He is still the Pope despite of his age and illness. As well as Christians, Atheists have sympathy for him too.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Questions to Help You Choose Your College Major

Questions to Help You Choose Your College Major When you were in high school, everyone wanted to know where you were going to go to college. Now that youre there, everyone wants to know what youre going to major in. If youre having problems deciding, try asking yourself these five questions. What Do I Love? Knowing what really engages you is critically important when picking a major. If you think you want to be a doctor but cant wait until chemistry ends because it means you can head straight to your Shakespeare class, pay attention to that. No matter what major you choose, if youre like everyone else, youll end up changing careers several times during your lifetime. So pick something that speaks to the fire in your belly and that will get you excited, regardless of the context in which its presented. What am I Good At? Do students in your residence hall always come to you for help with their biology homework? Do you always earn rave reviews for your performances or art work? Majoring in something that you have a natural inclination toward can speak to where your interests and skills are, and, if youre particularly skilled in a specific subject, can possibly lead to further study (abroad, in graduate school, or with a fellowship after graduation). What Do I Want to Do? Have you always wanted to be a doctor? A teacher? A lawyer? Dont limit yourself to only doing what is traditional for those fields. If you want to be a doctor but have a love of Spanish literature, make sure you take your pre-med requirements ... and look into majoring in Spanish. Having college goals and exploring your interests along the way can be a bonus on your graduate school applications. Similarly, if you know youve always wanted to work on Wall Street, make sure youre adequately prepared with the coursework youll need to get your foot in the door. Your major and your preparation for a professional field dont always have to be the exact same thing. What Skills Do I Want to Learn? If you love theater and are hoping to pursue it full-time after you graduate, remember to keep in mind the additional skills youll need to do so. If you want to run your own theater company someday, youll need to know about all kinds things about business rules, ethics, marketing, writing, public relations, and customer service. Pick a major that is intellectually interesting and that also provides you with the practical training you may need later. What Life Factors Do I Need to Consider? Many students have additional factors influencing their college choices: family, financial obligations, cultural expectations. While exploring your own path is highly important, its also important to keep in mind that these external forces will have an influence on your post-college life in one way or another. Finding a major that can provide balance for your internal dreams and desires with external expectations can make an overwhelming situation sometimes feel more manageable.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

OB Analysis Paper Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

OB Analysis Paper - Case Study Example Production engineers should come up with standardized way of building different products to reduce the delays and costs of operations (Buller & Randall 2-8). In addition, the company is also faced by test failures which are regarded as serious problems and this may make customers be delayed. Product engineers should try to be as competent as possible to reduce various causes of test errors and other test related activities which consume most of their time. Part of improvements that need to be taken care of are proper documentation. Stopping interruptions especially while the product engineers are in the meeting with Lee may not be the solution to the problem because it would also mean that there would be delays during the meeting. Lee should just ensure that his engineers come up with effective layout on how to build different products. Lee should also come up with solid agenda in his meetings to ensure that important issues are raised at a particular time limit. Considering that tim e is an important thing for the company particularly the product engineers, he should therefore fix a particular duration for the meetings. Some of the agendas of the meeting should not involve problem affecting a single product engineer but general challenge facing all of them (Buller & Randall 2-8). ... Lee should ensure that every issue raised in the meeting or amongst engineers that concerns the entire product engineering department is addressed and proper solution be found. Lee’s department does also not coordinate very well with the application engineers. Indeed there is a serious communication breakdown between application engineers and product engineers that even leads to customer dissatisfaction (Buller & Randall 2-8). Furthermore, Lee should ensure that there is cooperation and good relationship amongst the two departments to minimize the issues arising due to communication breakdown. There is also a shaky relationship between manufacturing department and product department which derails the functions of the company. Relationship between Lee and his boss too does not seem promising. Sam is not giving Lee enough support to smoothen operations in the product engineering department. For instance he is not providing the under-staffed product department with more personnel to make work easier. Moreover Sam cannot give or mediate between Lee and Reese as a way of creating peace and motivating the workers. As much as Lee may try to be a good leader who intends to ensure that his department works well and achieves the best results as possible, he does not have good support to succeed in his duty and objectives (Buller & Randall 2-8). OB Perspective There is an increasing pervasiveness in job dissatisfaction and disengagement due to paradoxical organizational behaviors which has resulted into negative consequences for employers and employees. Management of job and work output is largely contributed by degree of job satisfaction and attitude towards work. Various issues concerning organization performance are never costly

Friday, October 18, 2019

Is it sometimes necessary to sacrafice a few freedoms to protect Essay

Is it sometimes necessary to sacrafice a few freedoms to protect national security and to ensure the long-term viability of civil liberty - Essay Example Internal security involves protecting the United States citizens against internal threats like organized crimes. This involves with issues which are domestic (Watson, 2008). Civil liberty is the right for the United State citizens to enjoy their rights. These rights include the right for privacy, right to speech, protection and to be treated fairly. It is the right of every citizen in the United States to enjoy their civil liberty. This paper looks at the issue of sacrificing a few freedoms to protect national security, both the internal and external security and to ensure the long term viability of civil rights. It looks at which freedom can be sacrificed and to what extent the government should affect civil rights. It also looks at the importance of making these sacrifices. The paper also looks at instances where the civil rights are violated so to emphasis on the importance of the government to ensure that it does not cross the limit. These instances include unlawful detentions and torture. National security consist of a number of elements, it consist of the social and political stability which ensures that there harmony in a state. It also consist of territorial security of a state where in protects its borders against external invasion. This also consists of economic freedom where there is a free market for investors to operate in freely. Finally, this should consist of peace with externals. This is where a state ensures that it good relations with other countries. This is to be able to protect the state’s interests in those countries. The national security ensures the safety of citizens from threats. The national security includes the internal security which protects citizens from internal threats and the external security which protects citizens. Internal threats include things to do with economic sabotage through activities like smuggling, money laundering and counterfeiting. Issue concerned with organized crimes can also be a major

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 128

Assignment Example This paper explores and discusses the sovereignty claims of the native tribes in Alaska and Akaka in Hawaii. Natives of Alaska, a land purchased by the United States from Russia have gone through a tumultuous period of political and legal up and downs before the recognition of their self-government status by the federal government. Throughout the contacts between the aboriginals of Alaska and the Europeans, the natives have hotly pursued their rights to the ownership of their lands. In history, the Tlingit, Tanaka and Haida tribes initially fought with the Russia, and vehemently object the sale of the lands to the US, claiming the rightful ownership. After the sale, they took their struggle to a different player until the recognition of their status through the Congress enacted law, the Alaska native Claims Settlement Act in 1971 (Zellen, 120). The state government of Alaska has over the years softened its stand on tribal sovereignty amongst the Alaskan tribes. In 1992, the Native Policy Statement, an instrument from the state government codified laws acknowledging the tribal authority and recognized their special status. Hawaiian sovereignty efforts are dissimilar from other Native American claims as they demand total cessation from the Union and a return to the previous monarchial rule. However, there are certain actors within the native population who are pushing for self democratic government, whilst others have acknowledged the importance of the Union and are urging fellow tribes mate to stay within the Union. In the same breath as the governments of the other Native Americans, such as those in Alaska, the native populations are pushing to be including in an arrangement referred to as a nation within a nation (Trask, 66). In fact such a bill has been brought before the senate, repeatedly the Daniel Akaka (Kauanui, 173).

Festival and events Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Festival and events - Essay Example In addition, we have also approached for additional funding from the Virgin Australia Airlines Pty Ltd that offers sponsorship based on their internal evaluations for events that deliver community benefits that align to the direction of the company (n.d). In this note, the company agreed to donate $1000 to sponsor the night trivia. Further, we were keen in controlling the costs of organizing the event by ensuring that we select a venue that is cost effective. Our choice of venue for the event is Apple cross Anglican Church where it is possible to reduce the total cost for holding the event while still making the guests to have fun. The main hall areas in the Apple cross Anglican Church can host a maximum of about 230 guests at a cost of $20 per hour after 6pm for non-profit events (Applecross Anglican Church, n.d). In addition, the venue has other additional offers such as tables and soft drinks. Further, we have approached the Sound Guys Company where we have obtained discounted sound system at a cost of $70 for the event. All these additional resources make the cost of holding the event in the venue to be within our limited budget. In order to attract a large number of guests, we have organized some prizes and gifts that will be given to the participants of night trivia. For instance, we have approached Dymocks book shop who agreed to donate different types of books in order to support the event. In addition, we have also approached Coles Supermarkets who agreed to support the night trivia by donating food hampers that will play great part in attracting more participants. Further, we were able to get some gifts such as soaps, perfumes and lotions from Elizabeth Shop that will also constitute the prizes to be given out. In order for the participants to win the gifts, the trivia will be organized in such a way that groups in a table will compete

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Meter Dose Inhaler verses Nebulizer Treatment Research Paper

Meter Dose Inhaler verses Nebulizer Treatment - Research Paper Example Patients frequently ask health care providers as to which is a better mode of administration in terms of efficacy, convenience and safety. This triggered me to find evidence to ascertain as to which of the two is a better mode of administration in acute wheezing. Thus, it was both problem focused and knowledge focused trigger that generated the clinical question. Names/Types of research sources used The research source used was PubMed. Summation of the research findings as related to the clinical question Rodrigo and Rodrigo (1998) performed a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study to compare the efficacy of salbutamol (or albuterol) delivered by either metered-dose inhaler plus spacer (MDI-spacer) or by nebulization, and to determine the relationships between physiologic responses and plasma salbutamol concentrations. The study revealed that bronchodilatation remained same with metered dose inhalation and nebulization, but side effects were more with nebulization because of higher levels of plasma salbutamol due to increased absorption. Deerajanawong et al (2005) conducted a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with an aim to compare the efficacy of salbutamol aerosol therapy given metered dose inhaler and nebulization in young children with acute wheezing. ... From the study, it was evident that metered dose inhalers are as efficacious as nebulization to administer albuterol in young children with wheezing. Infact, the study revealed that metered dose inhalers were more convenient in this regard. Integration of research findings Administration of albuterol can be done either through metered dose inhalers or nebulization in acute wheezing conditions in children. Both methods of administration are equally efficacious. However, nebulization is more time consuming and has risk of side effects. Potential practice changes based on research evidence Metered dose inhaler would be recommended as the preferred of administration of albuterol in children with acute wheezing since it is easier to administer, takes less time in the process, can be given anywhere and has less side effects References Deerojanawong, J., Manuyakorn, W., Prapphal, N., Harnruthakorn, C., Sritippayawan, S., Samransamruajkit, R. (2005). Randomized controlled trial of salbutamol aerosol therapy via metered dose inhaler-spacer vs. jet nebulizer in young children with wheezing. Pediatr Pulmonol., 39(5), 466-72. Delgado, A., Chou, K.J., Silver, E.J., Crain, E.F. (2003). Nebulizers vs metered-dose inhalers with spacers for bronchodilator therapy to treat wheezing in children aged 2 to 24 months in a pediatric emergency department. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 157(1), 76-80. Rodrigo, C., and Rodrigo, G. (1998). Salbutamol treatment of acute severe asthma in the ED: MDI versus hand-held nebulizer. Am J Emerg Med., 16(7),

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties - Essay Example In this process, a sapphire laser system is used to trap samples of the metallic material. The laser is set up to be able to emit a continuous wave at the infrared radiation on the spectrum at a wavelength of about 760nm. The back focal plane of the of the condenser is imaged on a quadrant photodiode for the measurement of position detection. The metal samples are placed on the stage of translation and to achieve this, two methods are used. Transmission can either be done from above using the light emitting diode (LED) or reflection from below using mercury. The fluctuation of the quadrant diode voltage and the traces of time are acquired through three channels including two radial dimensions and a single sum voltage trace used on all the diodes. The advantages of this process are that the Boltzmann’s distribution can be used to measure the radial dimension of the sample. It is also possible to measure the spectral density and the corner frequency of the sample. Spark plasma sintering method: This is a recently developed process. It is also referred to as the pulsed electric current sintering method. This method employs a DC current in pulses and this power is passed through an electrically conducting pressure die and finally through the ceramic sample under investigation. The die usually acts as the source of heat and the ceramic sample is then heated on both its outer surface and the inner surface. The ceramics that are nano crystalline in nature and have size 10-50nm are prepared through co-precipitation. For a pressure less sintering process, the composite ceramic is normally isostatically pressed into a cylindrical green compact at a pressure of 400 Mpa. All the samples are then cleaned using a sand paper in order to remove the outer layer that is contaminated with a layer of carbon. An x-ray diffraction is then conducted to determine the phase analysis

Meter Dose Inhaler verses Nebulizer Treatment Research Paper

Meter Dose Inhaler verses Nebulizer Treatment - Research Paper Example Patients frequently ask health care providers as to which is a better mode of administration in terms of efficacy, convenience and safety. This triggered me to find evidence to ascertain as to which of the two is a better mode of administration in acute wheezing. Thus, it was both problem focused and knowledge focused trigger that generated the clinical question. Names/Types of research sources used The research source used was PubMed. Summation of the research findings as related to the clinical question Rodrigo and Rodrigo (1998) performed a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study to compare the efficacy of salbutamol (or albuterol) delivered by either metered-dose inhaler plus spacer (MDI-spacer) or by nebulization, and to determine the relationships between physiologic responses and plasma salbutamol concentrations. The study revealed that bronchodilatation remained same with metered dose inhalation and nebulization, but side effects were more with nebulization because of higher levels of plasma salbutamol due to increased absorption. Deerajanawong et al (2005) conducted a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with an aim to compare the efficacy of salbutamol aerosol therapy given metered dose inhaler and nebulization in young children with acute wheezing. ... From the study, it was evident that metered dose inhalers are as efficacious as nebulization to administer albuterol in young children with wheezing. Infact, the study revealed that metered dose inhalers were more convenient in this regard. Integration of research findings Administration of albuterol can be done either through metered dose inhalers or nebulization in acute wheezing conditions in children. Both methods of administration are equally efficacious. However, nebulization is more time consuming and has risk of side effects. Potential practice changes based on research evidence Metered dose inhaler would be recommended as the preferred of administration of albuterol in children with acute wheezing since it is easier to administer, takes less time in the process, can be given anywhere and has less side effects References Deerojanawong, J., Manuyakorn, W., Prapphal, N., Harnruthakorn, C., Sritippayawan, S., Samransamruajkit, R. (2005). Randomized controlled trial of salbutamol aerosol therapy via metered dose inhaler-spacer vs. jet nebulizer in young children with wheezing. Pediatr Pulmonol., 39(5), 466-72. Delgado, A., Chou, K.J., Silver, E.J., Crain, E.F. (2003). Nebulizers vs metered-dose inhalers with spacers for bronchodilator therapy to treat wheezing in children aged 2 to 24 months in a pediatric emergency department. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 157(1), 76-80. Rodrigo, C., and Rodrigo, G. (1998). Salbutamol treatment of acute severe asthma in the ED: MDI versus hand-held nebulizer. Am J Emerg Med., 16(7),

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Platos Apology Of Socrates Essay Example for Free

Platos Apology Of Socrates Essay INTRODUCTION Plato makes it clear, especially in his Apology of Socrates, that he was one of Socrates’ devoted young followers. In that dialogue, Socrates is presented as mentioning Plato by name as one of those youths close enough to him to have been corrupted, if he were in fact guilty of corrupting the youth,[1] and questioning why their fathers and brothers did not step forward to testify against him if he was indeed guilty of such a crime. The relationship between Plato and Socrates is not unproblematic. The charges against Socrates says that he has two sets of accusations: the old, longstanding charges that he is a criminal, a busybody, and a curious person who makes inquiries into the earth and sky, and the recent legal charges that he is guilty of corrupting the young, and of believing in supernatural things of his own invention instead of the gods recognized by the State.[2] Which he terms as charges stemmed from years of gossip and prejudice against him and hence was unanswerable. The trial of Socrates is the central, unifying event of the great Platonic dialogues.   The causes that occasioned this Apology were as follow: Aristophanes, at the instigation of Mellitus, undertook, in his comedy of the clouds, to ridicule the venerable character of Socrates, on the stage; and the way being once open to calumny and defamation, the fickle and licentious populace paid no reverence to the philosopher, whom they had before regarded as a being of a superior order.[3] When this had succeeded, Melitus stood forth to criminate him, together with Anytus and Lycon; and the philosopher was summoned before the tribunal of the Five Hundred. He was accused of making innovations in the religion of his country, and corrupting the youth. However, as both these accusations must have been obviously false to an unprejudiced tribunal, the accusers relied for the success of their cause on perjured witnesses, and the envy of the judges, whose ignorance would readily yield to misrepresentation, and be influenced and guided by false eloquence and fraudulent arts. In the Apology, Socrates tries to dismiss rumors that he is a sophist and defends himself against charges of disbelief in the gods and corruption of the young. Socrates insists that long-standing slander will be the real cause of his demise, and says the legal charges are essentially false. Socrates famously denies being wise, and explains how his life as a philosopher was launched by the oracle at Delphi. He says that his quest to resolve the riddle of the oracle put him at odds with his fellow man, and that this is the reason he has been mistaken for a menace to the city-state of Athens. THE APOLOGY of SOCRATES Socrates begins by saying he does not know if the men of Athens (his jury) translation often says â€Å"gentlemen,† have been persuaded by his accusers.[4] Plato often begins his Socratic dialogues with words that indicate the overall idea of the dialogue; in this case, I do not know. Indeed, in the Apology Socrates will suggest that philosophy consists entirely of a sincere admission of ignorance, and that whatever wisdom he has, comes from his knowledge that he knows nothing. Socrates asks the jury to judge him not by his oratorical skills, but by the truth. Socrates says he will not use ornate words and phrases that are carefully arranged, but will speak the chance thoughts that come into his head. I know not, O Athenians, how my accusers may affect you: I indeed have through them almost forgotten myself, so persuasively have they spoken; though, as I may say, they have not asserted any thing, which is true. However, among the multitude of their false assertions I am most surprised at this, in which they say that you ought to beware of being deceived by me, as if I were an eloquent speaker. For that, they should not be ashamed of asserting that which I will immediately confute in reality, since in the present instance I shall appear to you to be by no means eloquent, this seems to me to be the consummation of impudence; unless they call him eloquent who speaks the truth. The three men who brought the charges against Socrates were Anytus, son of a prominent Athenian, Anthemion. Anytus makes an important cameo appearance in Meno. Anytus appears unexpectedly while Socrates and Meno are discussing the acquisition of virtue. Having taken the position that virtue cannot be taught, Socrates adduces as evidence for this that many prominent Athenians have produced son’s inferior to themselves. Socrates says this, and then proceeds to name names, including Pericles and Thucydides. Anytus becomes very offended, and warns Socrates that running people down could get him into trouble someday. Meletus, the only accuser to speak during Socrates’ defense. He is mentioned in another dialog, Euthyphro, but does not appear in person. Socrates says there that Meletus is a young unknown with hooknose. In the Apology, Meletus allows himself to be cross-examined by Socrates and stumbles into a trap. Apparently not paying attention to the very charges he is bringing, he accuses Socrates of atheism and apparently, of believing in demi-gods. Lycon, about whom little is known; he was, according to Socrates, a representative of the orators. O Athenian, I should answer the first false accusations of me, and my first accusers, Socrates claims to never have been a teacher, in the sense of imparting knowledge to others. He cannot therefore be held responsible if any citizen turns bad. If he has corrupted anyone, why have they not come forward to be witnesses? Alternatively, if they do not realize that they have been corrupted, why have their relatives not stepped forward on their behalf? Many relatives of the young men associated with him, Socrates points out, are presently in the courtroom to support him.[5] For many have been accusers of me to you for many years, and who have asserted nothing true, of whom I am more afraid than of Anytus and his accomplices, though these indeed are powerful in persuading; but those are still more so, who having been conversant with many of you from infancy, have persuaded you, and accused me falsely.[6] For they have said, that there is one Socrates, a wise man, studious of things on high, and exploring every thing under the earth, and of believing in supernatural things of his own invention instead of the gods recognized by the State. These men, O Athenians, who spread this report, are my dire accusers. For those who hear it think that such as investigate these things do not believe that there are gods.[7] In the next place, these accusers are numerous, and have accused me for a long time. They also said these things to you in that age in which you would most readily believe them, some of you being boys and lads; and they accused me quietly, no one speaking in my defence. Such however, as have persuaded you by employing envy and calumny, together with those who being persuaded themselves have persuaded others. Consider, therefore, as I have said, that my accusers are twofold, some having accused me lately, and others formerly; and think that it is necessary I should answer the latter of these first; for you also have heard these my accusers, and much more than you have those by whom I have been recently accused. Be it so. I must defend myself then, O Athenians, and endeavor in this so short a space of time to remove from you the calumny that you have so long entertained. I wish, therefore, that this defence may effect something better both for you and me, and that it may contribute to some more important end. I think however that it will be attended with difficulty, and I am not entirely ignorant what the difficulty is. At the same time let this terminate as Divinity pleases. It is my business to obey the law, and to make my apology.[8] Conclusion Socrates concludes this part of the Apology by reminding the jurors that he will not resort to the usual emotive tricks and arguments. He will not break down in tears, nor will he produce his three sons in the hope of swaying the jurors. He does not fear death; nor will he act in a way contrary to his religious duty. He will rely solely on sound argument and the truth to present his case.[9]Socrates punishment speech angered the jurors. 360 of them voted for the death penalty; only 141 voted for a fine of 3,000 drachmae. Now Socrates has to respond to the verdict. He first addresses those who voted for death. He claims that it is not a lack of arguments that has resulted in his condemnation, but rather his unwillingness to stoop to the usual emotive appeals expected of any defendant facing death. Again, he insists that the prospect of death does not absolve one from following the path of goodness and truth. To those who voted for his acquittal, Socrates gives them encouragement: He says that his daimon did not stop him from conducting his defence in the way that he did as a sign that it was the right thing to do. Therefore, death must be a blessing. It is either an annihilation (thus bringing eternal peace from all worries, and therefore not something to be truly afraid of) or a migration to another place to meet souls of famous people such as Hesiod and Homer and heroes like Odysseus. With these, Socrates can continue his task of questioning. Bibliography Leo Strauss. Socrates and Aristophanic. New York, 1966. [1] Pp 82-2 [2] Pp83- 2 [3] Pp 84-1 [4] Pp 82-2 [5]pp143-1 [6] Pp 138-2 [7] Pp 84-2 [8] Pp 180-2 [9] Pp163-4

Monday, October 14, 2019

Marketing Management Marketing Plan of Asda

Marketing Management Marketing Plan of Asda Introduction Marking planning is one of the main functions of marketing department of an organization (Kotler, 2003). This coursework will focus on marketing strategy and plan of ASDA. The main points of discussion in this coursework are internal and external analysis, SWOT analysis, market targeting and marketing mix. Vision Statement of Asda According to Asda (2009) the main aim of the organization is to serve the customers by offering them lower prices and giving their customers respect for which they deserve. They want to achieve this goal through their staff called colleagues. They are developing their skills. So they can satisfy their customers expectation and make their visit to store more pleasant and joyful. Situation Analysis When an organization works in the competitive market, it has two main types of environment. Internal Environment External Environment To formulate, implement and execute a successful marketing strategy, ASDA management and marketing decision makers have to understand these two types of environments. (ASDA, 2009) Internal Environment The internal environment of an organization is inside of organization. Most of the processes and procedures working in the organization are part of internal environment of organization. Internal environment of an organization contains most of the controllable variables (Sadler and Craig, (2003). Following are the main elements of internal environment of ASDA. Employees The employees of an organization are most important part of organization as they participate in almost all the processes and produces of the organization. Even highly technological intensive organizations, the role of human resources is extremely important to get optimal benefit from that technology. The human resources of ASDA are 150000 of which 90000 are casual and remaining 60000 are full time. The company is managing casual and part timers to save the employees expenses. The marketing employees of organization include customer relation staff, people who work in general market and do surveys to collect market data and executives and managers work in the head office. (ASDA, 2009) Products ASDA is selling large range of products and services to their organization. Before its merger with the Wal-Mart the organization was under performing. As soon as they get the specialized help for their parent company, they started to grow. As a result, in 2003 they have taken over Sainsburys. They are selling their customers grocery, clothes, electronic products and many other type of products through their store based retailing and online retailing. In the online business, customers can get access to the store through ASDA website. The goods are delivered next day to customers at their door step. They are also providing financial services through their stores and website. (ASDA, 2009) Communication Communication within the organization and with the external world is mostly done through company own services. They are using modern technology for this purpose as well to establish social networking and get benefit for the experience and information of other. The internal structure is well defined and all the members know who is reporting to whom. For marketing communication same channels of communication are used. The market research data, different sort of analysis are available to all the people working in organization at the central local on services. (ASDA, 2009) External environment Markets ASDA is occupying 16% of United Kingdom Retail market. Out of these 16% nearly 50.30% people are visiting to their favorite stores everyday and nearly 14.60% people are visit the store two or three times daily. In the busy cities, the organization is continuously losing their customers base due to congestion in the cities. It takes time to go to ASDA and buy the goods. People prefer the corner shop for buying the product of casual use. (ASDA, 2009) Competitive Environment The UK market is very mature market and all the key players in the retail industry have their constant market share. It is very hard to increase the market share. To increase the market share organization has to spend more on the marketing expenses. The cost of marketing campaign is also reducing the profit margin of the owners/shareholders. Same is the problem for the marketing personnel of ASDA. (ASDA, 2009) Economic environment UK and whole world is passing through a world worse economic depression. This economic depression has reduced the purchasing power of the people. Same time it is hard for the organization to get access to the financial resources for their development projects. The per capital income is reducing due to reduction in per capital income. Organizations are facing more pressure from the government in terms of tax as their national deficient are increasing in larger extent. The United Kingdom recently has national deficient nearly 63% of their total GDP. This also has limited the organization marketing activities. They are cutting down the expenses and adopting more pessimistic approach. Though credit crisis has less impact on the retail industry like ASDA, Tesco as they are selling the products of basic needs but still economic impact is visible in their different marketing and business activities. (ASDA, 2009) Social and cultural environment The most of operations of ASDA are in United Kingdom. The society of UK is multicultural society. Keeping the nature of society in mind, ASDA marketing people do not ignore this fact. They have good range of products for different type of people belonging to different countries, religions and cultures. They are serving such customers in their world food department. (ASDA, 2009) Hitt, et al (2008) critically examined that the life style of the people in United Kingdom has changed in during last two decades. They prefer to buy bulk of goods from their favourite stores. This gives them benefit of time saving and less hassle. This also has developed the loyalty culture. The marketers are trying to understand the changing in thinking and taste of people and developing products to satisfy their changed needs. Political and legal environment The government of United Kingdom is thinking about out of town policy for the supermarket. This is negative for the supermarket and they will lose significant part of their sales due to this reason. The people will not come to store for the casual products. The control over the inflection is also function of government. The government of United Kingdom have taken number of quantitative measures after credit crisis. These enable the government to keep rate of inflation under 3%. Fiscal policy, monitory policy, employment policy or taxes are main part of government of United Kingdom. (Hitt, et al 2008) Technological environment Technology is used in many functions of business but use of technology in the marketing is really getting more importance. Marketing data is flowing from marketing personnel working in the field in real time basis. ASDA marketing personnel are using modern tools like mobile computer terminal at different places. The data generated by these machines straightaway comes to the central location. These tools are also helping the marketing managers to analyze the marketing data and give analytical reports. (ASDA, 2009) SWOT analysis Strengths ASDA is well known brand. Their financial strength is also higher due to support of their parent country. They have improved their managerial skills and developed number of best practices which they get from Mal-Mart. The organization is adopting lower price strategy which is best tool to attract more customers in current economic environment. (Lee and Lin, 2008) Weaknesses ASDA is lacking in smaller stores while their competitor Tesco is getting huge sum of money for smaller stores. It is not possible for the company to build bigger stores at shorter distance. The market share of ASDA is constant from number of years. This shows that there is no growth opportunity for the organization in future if conditions remain same. (Lee and Lin, 2008) Opportunities The organization has greater chances to diversify their business to India, China and other emerging economies. There are number of smaller and local chains which are struggling. ASDA can take over these stores and re-structure them to increase their customer base. (Lee and Lin, 2008) Threats the obvious threat of ASDA is its close competitor Sainsburys. If economy goes in further recession then organization is not in the position to reduce further prices as they are selling already at lower prices. (Lee and Lin, 2008) Marketing Objectives The main objective of ASDA is to provide more modern services to their customer. They are aiming to increase their customer base by provision of better services, adding more products in their product range and lastly the development of new channels of distribution. (ASDA, 2009) Through, more control over the prices, they have reduced their cost while quality of services is same. The 30% of the queues have been reduced due to application of more advanced technology at the checkouts. In this way they are willing the customer satisfaction. The organization is successfully implemented the policy of lower prices successfully. They want to carry on executing same policy in future. (ASDA, 2009) Target markets According to ASDA, (2009) The organization is targeting almost all the segments of UK society. However most general customers of ASDA are women of age 20s and 30s. These women buy the goods of day to day use for themselves and their families. The second group of market segment of ASDA are males. They also buy for themselves or for their families. It is showing that marketing campaign of ASDA is not specified on a particular group. Marketing Mix Strategies Product strategies ASDA is enabling their customers to go get access to their favourite products at the cheaper prices. In addition, they are also offering the customers to give their valuable suggestion for the better product development. When new products are launched they are encouraging their customer to participate in the product launching ceremony. When customers get such a care and freedom of suggestion then probability to get loyal is much more. ASDA is giving option to their customers that the person will come with the brightest ideas will get 5% of first year saving. (ASDA, 2009) Pricing strategies The organization is mainly focusing on the lower prices of their products. They are successfully running this policy from last 12 years. However during this time they could only win 0.50% market share from Tesco. (ASDA, 2009) Promotion strategies ASDA marketing people are always curious to adopt new and innovative promotional techniques. They are offering their customers like two for two pound, one for 1.99 and similarly many other techniques. The roll back tags of ASDA are visible to every visitor. The stores are instructed to display reduced price products in front of store so these can catch the attention of customers immediately when they enter into store. (ASDA, 2009) Distribution strategies ASDA have 25 bigger depots national wide scattered around at different strategic locations. In 2008, ASDA came into contract with Gazelle Company Limited who took the responsibility of management of its warehouse and its international marketing. ASDA stores also have their own production and manufacturing stores. (ASDA, 2009) Conclusion The marketing strategy of ASDA is successful especially inspiring the customers through their lower prices strategy. However, more innovation and new ideas are needed to catch the market leader Tesco. They should develop the team of marketing people who take care of their customers at more professional basis. More they will get success to make the customer loyal more they will grab the market share.