Sunday, January 26, 2020
Causes of Rwandas Involvement in the DRC To what extent has Rwandas involvementÃ in the DRC been of economicallyÃ rather than militarily motivated? Abstract Conflict! That word represents the history of Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in terms of their internal struggles as to who will control the destinies of these countries. The saga has encompassed over forty years, and as neighbours, has affected and impacted both countries negatively. Africa is known for its high degree of internal power struggles that have left its masses in poverty as a result of its leaders seeking political control at almost any cost. This condition has not escaped either Rwanda or the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This study shall seek to understand the dynamics of the national connection between Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in terms of the extent that RwandaÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement has been economically or militarily oriented. The preceding represents the opportunity to examine the relationship of these two neighbouring countries to uncover the extent as well as nature of the dynamics that have and are shaping their interaction. Introduction The purpose of this examination has broad and far-reaching implications, in that it seeks to look ate the very core of the relationship of these two African nation states. As such, the objectives will entail: The formulation of an understanding of the historical nuances and overt interaction between these two countries. Taking a look at the military as well as economic involvement. Delving into the political and regional circumstances that have had and or are having a bearing on the foregoing. Equating the extent that military or economic involvement has been and or is an issue The nature of this inquiry requires an examination of two dissimilar areas, economics and military activities, as well as how these might and or have dovetailed into each other, as the lines of separation are not always clear. Background Key to understanding the nature of the question that asks the extent that RwandaÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement with the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been economically rather than militarily motivated, a brief understanding of the histories of these two countries will provide a foundational underpinning to uncover the direction of their relationship and national connections. Rwanda is located in the east-central region of Africa, bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in an area that measures 26,338 square kilometres. Figure 1 Ã¢â¬â Map of Rwanda Orginally inhabited by a Pygmy tribe called the Twa, the agriculuturally founded Hutus suplanted them some six centuries ago. In order to plant crops the Hutus cleared forests and established permanent settlements. The Twa still remian in Rwanda, although their population is estimated to number approximately 1 percent of the overall total. As was the case with Africa in that period, other tribes migrated to the region, whose greenery and grasslands drew the cattle owning Tutsi. Aslo known as Watutsi, they came to the region of Rwanda around the 1600s and were consisted as more elite than the Hutus even though the two groups speak the same language. Part of the reason as to why the Tutsi (Watutsi) were considered elite is that they are extremely tall, averaging 2.1 metres in height, and of thin build. The aristocratic leanings of the Tutsi, they held the peasant Hutu in fuedal subjugation. The opinions on the differences between the cultures of the Hutu and Tutis is marginal, consisting primarly of the agricultural versus cattle tendencies of the aforementioned. Considerable intermarriage between the two groups further watered down differences, with the couple assuming the race of the fathers, and the difference in terms of tribe constructed along the lines of a caste system whereby the Tutsi are considered the higher class. Prior to the arrival of the Germans, the administration system that existed in Rwanda was highly organised and presided over by what is termed as a Umwami (king) that was usually of the Nyiginya clan of a Tutsi sub-group. In the administrative pecking order the Umwami had almost absolute power, and was assisted bt three chiefs: A military chief that oversaw the army and saw to the maintenance of integrity of the territory and expansion. A cattle chief that supervised all matters representing cattle, grazing as well as the settlement of disputes, and A land chief that oversaw agriculture, produce and allied concerns. The preceding is in keeping with the cultural make up of the territory that was comprised of cattle and agricultural tribes, along with their protection and securing additional lands. Within the aforementioned pecking order the Umwami and the military and cattle chiefs were Tutsi, with the agricultural chief generally being Hutu. The Rwandan society represents a system that is termed as ubuhake, that is a type of caste system of the landed gentry, the less landed, and the ordinary citizens. There are those who argue that in reality that the economic system of Ubuhake enables a symbitic relationship between the wealthy and priveged calsses with the less priviliged. The preceding system and class relationsips enjoyed a 400 year history of peacefulness. The GermanÃ¢â¬â¢s colonised Rwanda in 1899, ruling the country indirectly through the Mwami and the three chieftans via a protecorate arrangement as a result of the effectiveness of the Rwandan Ubuhabe system. During the first World War the country became known as Ruanda-Urundi, which represented a combination of Rwanda and Burundi under a Belgian League of Nations mandate. The preceding established a trust territory under the United Nations that lasted until 1946. During that period the Belgium administration at first maintained Tutsi dominance in the Ubuhabe governmental system overseen by the Mwani and the three chieftans. The preceding was slowly changed to a power sharing arrangement between the Tutsi and Hutu after ethnic tensions escalated into a civil war that forced a large number of Tutsi to leave the country. The 1st of July 1962 saw the mandated country of Ruanda-Urundi seperated back into Rwanda and Burundi, with the more numberous HutuÃ¢â¬â¢s rul ing the country. With a majority of the population represented by Hutu (85%), to just 15% for the Tutsi, the change in political structure in 1962 was inevitable. It is important to note that the conflict between the Hutu and Tutsi began as early as the 1950s when Tutsi forces attacked the Hutu politician Dominique Mbonyumutwa, setting off what is called Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ the wind of destruction Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ as the Hutu attacked the Tutsi population. In 1959 the Hutus overthrew the Tutsi king, which also contributed to the preceding. Some 150,000 Tutsi that flew the country as a result of Hutu control setting up guerrila goups in neighboring countries, noteably Uganda. Over the ensuing years, the children of the exiles formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front, that started a civil war in 1990. The preceding historical background is important in understanding the chain of events that transpired in Rwanda, bringing it to present day. That history, present day stemming from the 1990s, contains the fore runner as well as aftermath of events that represent the purpose of this study, that will be investigated in a review of literature to delve into background facets. As Rwanda represents the central country in this study, the Democratic Republic of the Congo shall be explored later. The focus of this examination is to look into the extent that the involvement of Rwanda with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been movitivated more by economics than military reasons. Methodology The investigation as proposed by this study is a question that entails looking deeply into the status and ramifications of the relations of these two countries on a number of levels. As it is probable that there is no literature or other research information available that equates this question directly, the approach to this study will have to take on varied directions and research approaches to uncover information germane to the examination. The preceding being the general overall case, the research methodology will of course include a wide breathe of secondary research sources to secure historical as well as contemporary information. Given that this study entails two sovereign countries, the history between these two nations represents the logical starting point, as the timeline of convergence with respect to the Rwanda and the Congo thus represents the starting point in examining the nature of their relations. The preceding represents a key to this study as the answer to the question as posed by this examination exists somewhere within the foregoing. Secondary research provides the opportunity to review the largest and broadest amount of information possible as it entails books, journals, magazine articles, newspapers and Internet sources. The foregoing affords the opportunity to look at many differing facets, as the scope of economic and military interaction can take on many forms, especially in the context of the unstructured region of Africa that has a long history of intra nation conflicts and other disputes. Secondary research represents a technique that is used extensively as it provides a broad realm of informational possibilities and inputs as well as opinions that might contain and or provide insight and or information that aids in the examination. The shortcoming of the process of utilising secondary research is that the possibility exists that one might be subject to the possible bias of the author whose work was conducted to delve into, prove, understand or make a point. However, secondary research also provides a means to minimise that potential through using and or searching for facts that reveal themselves in more than one source. The preceding duality of data provides some assurance that the information and or information direction has some validity. Powell asserts that the foregoing represents a sane course of research in that secondary sources: are generally plentiful, that in using secondary sources, one needs to exercise care in looking for as well as drawing out pertinent information, that a benefit of secondary research is that large volumes of data can be correlated in a time frame that is reasonable, the expense of obtaining secondary research is extremely beneficial, the broad range of possibilities as offered by the exposure to a wide breathe of information makes secondary research more valuable in that it is easy to verify most information. As is always the case with an upside in any endeavour that are the negative connotations as well. Powell brings forth these areas by advising: In terms of word usage and meaning, the seeming direction of statements can take on a different connotation and or meaning in a specific context or series of contexts than one might be prepared to understand or acknowledge. The aforementioned bias in terms of the source can skew information as indicated. The recommended method to minimise such an occurrence is by comparative information from other sources. The dating and or ageing of information can potentially change the validity of researched data if new developments have changed the outcomes, or data is uncovered later that invalidates conceptions that existed before. Seeking historical and contemporary research to look for consistency with regard to the foregoing aids in minimising dated or information that has lost its relevance. In keeping with the preceding need to ensure that recent information, discoveries and or findings did not or had not changed the conditions of the study, the Internet was utilised to look for potential modifications in approaches, as well as to compare source reliability. The research used quantitative research to a small degree as it helped in the understanding of question components from an historical perspective. Daymon and Holloway advise that quantitative measures tend to have a large-scale approach that focuses on specific factors that are thus looked at in relationship to other data. Given the need to uncover information in a quest for the answer, which at the time of beginning the research was unknown, quantitative research was the only viable course of action. Literature Review In conducting the examination of the historical Background of Rwanda in Section 2.0, a look into the developmental aspects of the country brought forth the progression of events that helped to shape the country up to the 1990s. In order to bring into focus the purpose of this study as represented by to what extent has RwandaÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) been of economically movitated as opposed to military reasons, a brief look into the developmental path of the country from the 1990s is in order. 4.1 Rwanda As brought forth in Section 2.0 Background, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s history was shaped by the administrative skills of the Tutsi who took control of the country nearly 400 years ago. That rule lasted until 1 July 1962 that saw the mandated country of Ruanda-Urundi seperated back into Rwanda and Burundi, with the more numberous HutuÃ¢â¬â¢s ruling the country. The civil war that gripped the country in the 1990s was, has has been the history of Africa, and the world, a struggle for power and wealth. Though vastly outnumbered in terms of population, the Hutu were not as organised or bloodthrusty as the Tutsi. A large number of the exiled Tutsi served in the Uganda rebel forces and learned guerilla tactics, thus providing them with needed experience. The preceding provided the foundation for the Rwandan Patriotic Front under Paul Kagame to gain recruits and thus their planned invasion of Rwanda. The fierce fighting for the three year period between 1990 and 1993 prompted a cease fire that became known s the Arusha accord, which was devised to organised a power sharing government to end the civil conflict that had caused the displacement of over 1.5 million Hutus that had been massacred by the Rwandan Patriotic Front. The preceding Arusha accord crumbled as a result of an assassination of the Hutu Burundi president Melchior Ndadaye by Burundian Tutsi in their army. That event spurred a new era of Hutu / Tutsi hatred that caused the accord to crumble. Ensuing events saw the Rwandan Patriotic Front bomb the Rwanda capital of Kigali, as well as assassinate the Hutu president of Rwanda as well as the Hutu president of Burundi by shooting down their jet as it attempted a landing in Kigali. The preceding evnts caused an intensification in the conflict between the Hutu and Tutsi that resulted in the deaths of an estimated 800,000 Tutsis and Hutu moderates. The Tutsi led forces continued their military campaign, capturing the capital and eventually caused over 2 million Hutus to flee the country . The Tutsi dominantion again asserted itself in Rwanda as it took control of the government in 1994 at the end of the civil war and have held power since, The Rwandan Patriotic Front re-wrote the history of its genocide and placed its version of how events transpired into the consitution. 4.2 The Democratic Republic of the Congo The area known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was inhabited approximately 10,000 years ago, and was settled by the Bantu people from what is now known as Nigeria between the 7th and 8th centuries. The Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Portuguguese navigator Diego Cao Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ discovered the Congo in 1482, and it is well known as the locale that was Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ explored by English journalist Henry Morton Stanley Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . Figure 2 Ã¢â¬â Democratic Republic of the Congo The Congo was originally given the name Zaire as a result of Diego Cao misspelling the Kilongo term for river. At that time, the Kongo kingdom as it was spelled then: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦stretched from northern Angola to the north bank of the Congo River, in the area now known as Bas Zaire. The kingdom, with its capital at Mbanza Kongo, had a well-established centralized system of government; it was divided into six provinces, each administered by a local governor appointed by the king. Within each province Kongo district chiefs governed in their respective areas, and at the village level headmen were accountable to the district chiefs. The king was elected from the male descendants of the individual who had conquered the area. Although he was a member of the aristocracy and appeared to have absolute power, the king was in fact subject to the control of a council of elders who could depose him.Ã¢â¬ Soon after Diego CaoÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery the Portuguese government established diplomatic relations with the kingdom that fostered socioeconomic exchanges. The influence of that union brought Catholicism to Zaire (The Democratic Republic of the Congo), along with Portuguese customs. The preceding.: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ greatly facilitated development of the slave trade in the region. Slaves purchased from the Kongo provided cheap labour for plantations on nearby Portuguese islands and, subsequently, the AmericasÃ¢â¬ The slave trade escalated into an issue as it depopulated vast areas and also resulted inborder raids thus causing warefare with neighboring tribes. The economics of the slave trade cause fighting within Zaire itself as rival groups fought for dominance. Internal infighting over Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the slave trade undermined political authority and created social stratification in the kingdomÃ¢â¬ . The history of the Congo was not as politically charged as Rwanda, yet as has been the case in all Afgrican countries, the paths to independence and after have been faught with issues. In addition to the slave trade, there was also the ivory trade that brought Arabs into the Congo fostered the slave trade as well as in ivory. In the late 1950s the subject of decolonialisation was brought up by President Charles de Gaulle for the French colonies in Africa fueling the desire for the same status in the Congo. The Belgians Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦were given some indication of the extent of Congolese nationalist feeling when riots broke out in the capitalÃ¢â¬ in 1959. The change in the overall political approach to Africa fostered the offering of free elections in 1960 and resulted in installing Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Patrice Lumumba as prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu as president of the renamed Democratic Republic of the CongoÃ¢â¬ . LumumbaÃ¢â¬â¢s victory was by a narrow margin, with his party gaining just 24% of the 137 seats in the Assembly, thus Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦underscoring the fragmentation that existed in party affiliationsÃ¢â¬ . As a result of the foregoing independence did not achieve the expectations that the country dreamed of. Within two weeks of the elections the country plunged into a maj or crisis Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦following the mutiny of the former colonial army and the secession of Katanga, its richest provinceÃ¢â¬ . The new Democratic Republic of the Congo was suffering its first crisis that lasted for four years and resulted in the deployment of U.N. peacekeeping forces. Patrice Lumumba was assassinated on order from then U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower as a result of his strong communist affiliations during the Cold War period. That situation enabled the United States to install their hand picked selection Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Joseph Desire Mobutu, who later changed his forename to Sese SekoÃ¢â¬ , who had been a sergeant in the army The preceding was accomplished by a coup dÃ¢â¬â¢etat in 1965. Mobutu established a dictatorship that was backed up by his military cronies, as well as the United States, Belgium and France in order to ensure that communist party forces could not regain control of what was now called Zaire. The foregoing alliance was needed as Mobutu faced rebellion Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦from armed insurgents seeking to overthrow himÃ¢â¬ . The arrangement failed in 1997 when the rebels forced Mobutu to flee the country. Nzongola helps us to understand the linkage between Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire) as he advises: Ã¢â¬Å"The insurgency that brought about Mobutus demise is directly related to the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, the defining moment of the current political situation in the Great Lakes region. Like the ethnic cleansing in the Katanga and Kivu provinces of Mobutus Zaire, the Rwandan genocide was partly a result of the violent backlash of authoritarian regimes against the democracy movement. In the Rwanda case, the late President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, had been in power since 1973. During 20 years of personal rule, he steadfastly refused to allow Tutsi victims of the 1959 pogrom and subsequent violence, who were in exile in neighbouring countries, to return home. Under the leadership of the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF), the Tutsi diaspora in Uganda launched a military campaign to overthrow the Habyarimana regime in October 1990. France, Belgium and Mobutus Zaire came to the dictators rescue and prevented an RPF victory.Ã¢â¬ The background history on Rwanda, in terms of the Arusha Peace Agreement that was signed on 4 August 1993, brings these two countries developmental path into closer proximity . The Congo shares part of its border with Rwanda, thus affording the Tutsi a location as a rallying point for raids and attacks. Nzongola tells us: Ã¢â¬Å"In this situation, the disintegration of the Mobutu regime provided Rwanda with an opportunity to make incursions into the Kivu provinces in order to destroy the bases of the ex-FAR and the Interahamwe, beginning in August 1996. When it appeared that the Mobutu regime was militarily incapable of challenging these incursions, Rwanda and Uganda assembled a coalition of states in Eastern and Southern Africa including Angola, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Namibia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe with the objective of getting rid of Mobutu altogether.Ã¢â¬ 4.3 Common Histories Between the Two Countries The preceding historical summaries of the violent regimes in Rwanda and the Congo have a commonality, control of these respective countries. The series of conflicts in Rwanda has resulted in large refugee populations in its neighbouring countries, with the Democratic Republic of the Congo receiving the largest number of them since the genocide of 1994. The displaced persons formed the foundation for the long series of conflicts in Rwanda that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦has had a destabilizing effect on the entire Great Lakes region, including Rwanda. As set forth in Chapter 2.0 Background, the Hutus comprise approximately 85% of the Rwandan population as farmers. One of the economic problems that has and does face the country is the scarcity of land for agriculture, along with access to resources. The problem has caused cultivation to encroach on wetlands as well as reserve and national park areas in order to met the demands of the poor, with the large numbers of displaced Rwandans pl acing stress on areas such as forests and other ecologically sensitive areas. Given the 85% agriculturally based Hutu population in Rwanda, land scarcity represents an issue that has plagued the country since the 1980s, which has been further exacerbated by the Tutsi / Hutu conflicts. As one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, RwandaÃ¢â¬â¢s land shortage problem has been an historical facet. An example of the dwindling land space in Rwanda is evidenced by the fact that the average land held by household in the country has decreased from 2 ha in 1960, down to 1.2 ha in 1984, dropping to 0.7 ha in the beginning of the 1990s, and as of 2001 just under 60% of all Rwandan household held less than 0.5 ha . The country has an overall area of 26,338 square km, and a population of approximately 8 million that translates into a population density of approximately 300 people per kilometre. Of the foregoing overall land total 1.3 million hectares is estimated as arable, with 165,000 hectares of marshlands, of which an estimated 50% is suitable for agriculture. Agriculture is the cornerstone of the Rwandan economy, and occupies over 90% of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s rural area . The preceding foundation, agriculture and the economy, is fraught with issues as represented by: The country has a high density of population that puts extreme pressures on land area and usage. The average cultivation plot per household is around 0.6 ha, which is below the 0.9 ha as recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. The preceding conditions have led to the over utilisation of the land, made more problematic by the lack of proper crop rotation techniques and nutrient use thus leading to continued degradation. The lack of the foregoing as well as conservation methods and proper equipment has further exacerbated the problem. The genocide of 1994 is still impacting land use and agriculture in that plots left to orphans and widows by family members who are deceased has not been managed properly. The land system in Rwanda is controlled under customary law that is skewed towards the partitioning of land via a father to son inheritance system. The preceding, inheritance system, makes the land system unfavorable to women as well as female children. The poverty level of the country means that agricultural are backward, lacking proper equipment, use of nutrients and crop rotation techniques. The preceding are known problems, which the Rwandan government has addressed through the following reform measures: Institutions such as the Ministry of Lands, along with the Human Settlement as well as environmental Protection policies have been established since 1999. The country has moved to develop a National land Policy as well as Land Law that are dedicated to promote the use of good land management. The main innovations under the later are represented by a new legal framework that regulates the registration of land, along with the delivery of its title through a leasehold period of 99 years. It also includes a framework that regulates land planning. Under consideration is a proposal that utilises a centrally based and computerized National Land Information System to facilitate an accurate as well as complete land database through which effective land management can be put into place. The foregoing includes district centres to gather information through survey and documentation of titles, as well as closer liaison in terms of overseeing and delivering land management procedures and utilisation. Limited natural resources in Rwanda, as represented by columbite-tantalite, cassiterite, and wolframite are the most important minerals, followed by small deposits of gold and sapphires. Agriculture represents 43% of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, which primarily consists of coffee and tea exports that have yet to return to the pre 1996 genocide levels. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s agricultural system is comprised primarily of small family farms that keep approximately 80% of their output for their own consumption, thus leaving little for export. Typical family farm growth crops consists of bananas 62.5%, sweet potatoes Ã¢â¬â 17.9%, Cassava Ã¢â¬â 4.5%, Irish potatoes Ã¢â¬â 4.3%, beans and peas Ã¢â¬â 3.9%, sorghum Ã¢â¬â 2.9%, maize Ã¢â¬â 1.4% along with wheat, soya and groundnuts. In total, the planted areas still represent 87% of the 1994 levels. Economically the country achieved a growth rate of 6.6% in the
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Music has been known to express ideas in human emotion; music can be a release from the hectic world. But people in the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s did not sit back and relax to the sound of Ã¢â¬Å"Feel It N*ggaÃ¢â¬ by 50 cent. In fact, the type of songs that 50 cent sings is far from what people in the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s used to listen to. Even though some elements of music havenÃ¢â¬â¢t changed such as pace and sentimentality in love songs, many styles of music have evolved into more aggressive lyrics and/or very explicit and vulgar wording to fit some American cultures in the year 2006. Words like Ã¢â¬Å"niggerÃ¢â¬ , the involvement of sexual intercourse, and the presence of violence has manifested itself into songs today, unlike the older musical generation. One of the very little unchanged aspects of music is the pace of love songs. Love songs have two kinds of pace: fast and slow. An example of a fast paced song in the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s is the song by The Platters, Ã¢â¬Å"The Magic TouchÃ¢â¬ . This song combined the thrill of love and a fast catchy pace. This ingenious aspect is also apparent in the song by Vanessa Carlton, Ã¢â¬Å"A Thousand MilesÃ¢â¬ . The pace for this song is even faster than Ã¢â¬Å"The Magic TouchÃ¢â¬ and it is seasoned with the playing of the violin, the second fastest played instrument known to man. Another bridge between the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s and today is the slow pace in other love songs. In the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"Only YouÃ¢â¬ by the Righteous Brothers, the pace is slow. This is evident due to the chord put in C minor which is a line of successive notes that are use as a calming remedy. In Celine DionÃ¢â¬â¢s song Ã¢â¬Å"My Heart Will Go OnÃ¢â¬ , she prolongs the final notes in order to slow the pace. The use of the flute which calms or soothes the melody of the song also aids in the slowing of the pace or tempo. Although there are some similarities the differences out-weigh them by a great deal. In the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s, aggression was never used in song; it would be banned by the church and labeled as songs of the devil, because of the religious innocence in that time period. It would also be banned by the government because it did not uplift the mood and morale of the veterans who had suffered mentally and physically in World War II. On the other hand, today aggression is greatly used in many examples of music, such as DMXÃ¢â¬â¢s previous song Ã¢â¬Å"Blood of my BloodÃ¢â¬ , where he uses the quote Ã¢â¬Å"whitey wants die why you wanna try Ã¢â¬Å". This quote is aggression directed at white AmericansÃ due to the racial discrimination in the past. One of the few similarities in music from the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s and the music today is the sentimentality in love songs. In the song by the Righteous Brothers Ã¢â¬Å"Only youÃ¢â¬ , it is very sentimental; it signifies the singerÃ¢â¬â¢s untold love to someone. The words Ã¢â¬Å"Only you can make this world seem rightÃ¢â¬ explain the extreme sentimental feelings for that person because of the over romanticized imagery. Today we also have very sentimental songs such as the musical number by Mariah Carey Ã¢â¬Å"Life AinÃ¢â¬â¢t Worth Liven Without YouÃ¢â¬ . Here even the title of the song is enough to show the sentimentality that is expressed in this song. Finally, one important difference is censorship. In the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s it was impossible to find a song with explicit language, but today, songs are crammed with provocative language and subjects that can be offensive to many people. For example, the lyrics by Ludicrous in his song the 411 Ã¢â¬ I got h*s in different area codes Ã¢â¬Å"or in the song Ã¢â¬Å"Colt 45Ã¢â¬ ³ by Afroman statingÃ¢â¬ I got a box o weed and a bottle of wine IÃ¢â¬â¢m gonna f*ck This b*tch just one more timeÃ¢â¬ . Such profane language would never have been used in the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s. One would notice that there are more womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights today than in the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s, yet such profanity, which may be viewed as offensive in a feminist point of view, is still sold today. In conclusion, the musical styles and rudiments of North American music have been vastly changed to reflect some aspects of U.S society today. Musical aspects such as pace and sentimentality in love songs may not have changed; however, many styles of music, in comparison to the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s, have evolved into more aggressive or vulgar lyrics. Simple fast tempo music can no longer elevate the mood of the majority, and the vast differences will only change even more in the years to come. In the 50Ã¢â¬â¢s a simple Ã¢â¬Å"AWAP BA DA LU BOP A WAM BAM BOOMÃ¢â¬ was the essence of music that was Ã¢â¬Å"hipÃ¢â¬ .Today, very large amplifiers are used to magnify the sounds of Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ lyrics.
Friday, January 10, 2020
* NAME : ABDUL RAHMAN BIN MOHAMED * GROUP : 12M13 * TOPIC : READING 1 Ã¢â¬â FRIDA KAHLO : TRIUMPH OVER TRAGEDY DISCUSSION QUESTIONS QUESTION 1: How do you think painting help Frida Kahlo with her problem? ANSWER: From my view of humanisation, painting helps Frida Kahlo so much. It is because only from painting will make her continues her hope about her life after turning point of her life made her really uncapable to do anything else such as to be one of the successful doctor only building the castle in the air. From her painting make her more sensitive in so many things. As we know, Frida expressed her feeling by that creative way teaches the other on how to take care of other feeling beside appreciate them. Frida`s painting resolve by hidden message on how to try our best not to be heartbreaker or make a hole of sadness in someone heart as her told that she had experienced second accident in her life with her beloved husband. Of course these single moment will be portrayed by frida to make sure every moments will not forgetable. Lasty, she got place in every one`s heart by her painting and became well-known. QUESTION 2: Many of KahloÃ¢â¬â¢s paintings express pain and tragedy. Do you like to see this in a work of art? If so, why? If not, what would you like to see? ANSWER: I really don`t like that kinds of painting that reminds me of someone that I hate so much. I would prefer some of the painting that shows love. Love painting is about something unique. Not every painter success to portray those kinds of painting. Painting is one of the medium to change other people and influenced their way of life. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why love theme painting make us kindly shares our love and open our minds to shares our heart together. Love also not just limited to human, but also can be animal, family and the others. This unique kind of painting can resolve life of communities that full of hatred, selfish to the very good mankind ever seen in the world. QUESTION 3: What is your opinion of the mischievous acts carried out by Cachuchas? Why they did they do these things? Was their behaviour acceptable? Why or why not? ANSWER: From my opinion, the action carried out by Cachuchas is just to make everybody sense of their presence in school and they want to become attractive in their way so everybody who watch them will follow their style including the nerd (unpopular in school). Other than that, QUESTION 4: Is it important to know about an artist`s life in order to understand his or her work? ANSWER: Yes. It is important to know about an artist`s life as from their life we can learn what are messages about from the painting. In consequences, we will be become more sharp observer and understand more about painting and art. As we take example, one of the most famous person during renaissances was Leonardo Da Vincci. He was the one who like to do his painting in realist style such as Mona Lisa portrait. No other painter has been able to express the facial subtleties of the human character with such startling accuracy. Some people wonder why it is that her facial expression seems to change depending on the direction from which you look at her. This is because during painting of Mona Lisa, Leonardo hired a few of clowns to make her happy and not get bored. That`s how Leonardo manipulate the situation. This example shows us clearly why we need to understand extra information about artistÃ¢â¬â¢s life and history of his painting. Frida Kahlo * NAME : ABDUL RAHMAN BIN MOHAMED * GROUP : 12M13 * TOPIC : READING 1 Ã¢â¬â FRIDA KAHLO : TRIUMPH OVER TRAGEDY DISCUSSION QUESTIONS QUESTION 1: How do you think painting help Frida Kahlo with her problem? ANSWER: From my view of humanisation, painting helps Frida Kahlo so much. It is because only from painting will make her continues her hope about her life after turning point of her life made her really uncapable to do anything else such as to be one of the successful doctor only building the castle in the air. From her painting make her more sensitive in so many things. As we know, Frida expressed her feeling by that creative way teaches the other on how to take care of other feeling beside appreciate them. Frida`s painting resolve by hidden message on how to try our best not to be heartbreaker or make a hole of sadness in someone heart as her told that she had experienced second accident in her life with her beloved husband. Of course these single moment will be portrayed by frida to make sure every moments will not forgetable. Lasty, she got place in every one`s heart by her painting and became well-known. QUESTION 2: Many of KahloÃ¢â¬â¢s paintings express pain and tragedy. Do you like to see this in a work of art? If so, why? If not, what would you like to see? ANSWER: I really don`t like that kinds of painting that reminds me of someone that I hate so much. I would prefer some of the painting that shows love. Love painting is about something unique. Not every painter success to portray those kinds of painting. Painting is one of the medium to change other people and influenced their way of life. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why love theme painting make us kindly shares our love and open our minds to shares our heart together. Love also not just limited to human, but also can be animal, family and the others. This unique kind of painting can resolve life of communities that full of hatred, selfish to the very good mankind ever seen in the world. QUESTION 3: What is your opinion of the mischievous acts carried out by Cachuchas? Why they did they do these things? Was their behaviour acceptable? Why or why not? ANSWER: From my opinion, the action carried out by Cachuchas is just to make everybody sense of their presence in school and they want to become attractive in their way so everybody who watch them will follow their style including the nerd (unpopular in school). Other than that, QUESTION 4: Is it important to know about an artist`s life in order to understand his or her work? ANSWER: Yes. It is important to know about an artist`s life as from their life we can learn what are messages about from the painting. In consequences, we will be become more sharp observer and understand more about painting and art. As we take example, one of the most famous person during renaissances was Leonardo Da Vincci. He was the one who like to do his painting in realist style such as Mona Lisa portrait. No other painter has been able to express the facial subtleties of the human character with such startling accuracy. Some people wonder why it is that her facial expression seems to change depending on the direction from which you look at her. This is because during painting of Mona Lisa, Leonardo hired a few of clowns to make her happy and not get bored. That`s how Leonardo manipulate the situation. This example shows us clearly why we need to understand extra information about artistÃ¢â¬â¢s life and history of his painting. Frida kahlo The Art of Friday Kohl: Realist and Overwhelming The autobiographical movie Ã¢â¬Å"FridayÃ¢â¬ directed by Julie Tomato and release in October, 2002. It is a realistic portrait of the life of Mexican painter Friday Kohl and her life's bitterness, her political believes, and the tormented relationship with her painter husband, Diego Riviera. As a result the motive of her artworks is basically in self- portraits. Friday's personality projects to be a liberal, passionate, independent, strong, and charming woman.She was an eminent artist in the 20th century who exposes angular exceptional thoughts ahead of her time; as a result, many people consider her as feminist although there is a little controversy about this. Magdalene Carmen Friday Kohl y Cauldron, known as Friday Kohl, was born July 6, 1907 in Accompany, Mexico City, Mexico. She died July 13, 1954 in the same place that she was born. She suffered poliomyelitis at the age of six, and at age eighteen, she was a victim of a tragic bus accident which resulted nine surgeries that left her with constant pain and infertility.However, her strength made her replace her agony with art. While she was in bed for recovery, her mom gave her a mirror to see herself. Therefore, through her paintings, we can feel her pain and sensibility. For instance, in one self-portrait Ã¢â¬Å"The Broken ColumnsÃ¢â¬ dressed in a metal corset, she painted in a surrealistic way because she was almost naked with nails in her whole body. She is crying; perhaps, we can imagine the dimension of the pain, but she knew what the pain truly was (Sayers).Friday had been damaged for the life by illness and the bus accident, but the last injury was from Diego Riviera, her husband, who Just brought emotional disturbance which lasted until her death. She loved him passionately and obsessively, so she endured his many infidelities including with her sister, Christina. However, she also had many affairs not only with men but also with women. Having a liberal personality, Friday was never committed to social norms; thus her behavior was consequent with her identity and freedom. Even more, she was always inspired by love for her country, dressing in Mexican native gowns.Besides, the political struggle as consequence of 30 years under the government of Portfolio Ditz, a rebellion environment, the Mexican Revolution, and the Mexican constitution surrounded Friday when she was growing up. Therefore, she acquired a social consciousness, identified with the Communist Party. Also, she took the risk of hiding Leon Trotsky, the revolutionary Marxist activist against Stalin, in her house having an affair with him during that time (Hearer). As a feminist, Friday is considered an idol precisely for her personality.She never cares about superficial elements to get attention. She assumed her identity with plenty of liberty, and never suppressed her inclination to be bisexual. Today, many women admire her because she acted at that time as a c ontemporary woman in the criterion of being a feminist. However, there is a controversy about this because her emotional dependence on Diego has been questionable. She was completely independent, having her own style in her work. Perhaps, she had great and unusual capacity to love that not everybody could understand.In addition, Friday has been an inspiration for many writers, directors, and Journalists to write about her (Gunderson). Her self-portraits reflect the reality of one life with all the experiences, suffering, pain, tradition and history, with bright colors, so these things captivate the hearts of women and men. Friday had the first exhibition of her work a year before her death, and she was well known as an artist. Her true fame began in 1978, with public presentations around the world of her artwork, recognizing her as one of the best painters not only in Mexico but also in the roll.In fact, we can find Friday's paintings at the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York), an d one of her portraits was sold to Soothers a British multinational corporation, for nearly 1. 5 million dollars, being one of the biggest prices paid at a bidding for a Latin American artwork (Sayers). Ironically, her fate was not the enjoyment of all the values that she had, such as an artist, but Friday is a legacy of art, history, and humanity. Her work is biographic, full of passion, and she reflects the bitterness of life for what today we identified with her beautiful mind. Frida Kahlo Friday Kohl (1907-1954) was a Mexican artist who grew up during the Mexican Revolution, a time of great social and economic change. There was a strong sense of nationalistic pride during this time, which is evident in her later works. During childhood, Kohl had polio, this affected her growth and development. Furthermore, she was involved in a bus accident later in her life, which damaged her spine and was extremely traumatic in her mental processes. Because of this, she had ongoing surgery throughout her life, and, was in constant pain.However, after this accident, she began painting to express herself. As a result of her accident, she suffered numerous miscarriages and was unable to have children Ã¢â¬â an issue she explores in her 1932 work ?Henry Ford Hospital]. Kohl was an active participant in the social and political landscape of Mexico, and used artworks to express her social and political views, as well as themes of her physical pain and contain, cultural background and my thology, and Mexican traditions through her dress, layout, and symbolism.Particularly evident in ?Lass Dos Fridays, history and culture are shown to be an incredibly influential and important aspect of Friday's mindset and views on life ND her own personal and cultural identity. Lass Dos Fridays is one of Kohl's largest works at approximately 68 x 68 inches in size. L It is a departure from the retable format she frequently used, reflecting Kohl's desire for her work to be noticed at the Surrealist exhibition for which it was intended. 2 Two monumental, full length representations of the artist are seated side-by-side on a simple green bench, gently holding hands.Behind them, dark, Jagged clouds blanket the sky, eliminating any specific sense of place. The two figures are linked by a shared circulatory system which pumps blood between their exposed hearts. The figure on the left uses a clamp in an attempt to stanch the flow of blood falling on her stiff white gown. 3 As the blood po ols in the folds of her dress, it spills over and falls onto the hem of her skirt in uniform, circular droplets. The shape of the falling droplets of blood mimics, both in color and shape, the embroidered floral pattern which adorns the bottom of her skirt.This antiquated frock with an elaborately decorated lace bodice covers the majority of the figure's body with the exception of her forearms and her left breast, which is exposed by an irregularly formed void in the garment. 4 Significantly, the lack of Jose thread and the absence of the excess fabric that would have been produced had her garment been forcibly ripped open suggests a less violent, perhaps voluntary, method of exposure. Adjacent to the figure's heart, the lace bodice is interrupted by a cutout which provides a view of the white under-layer supporting the lacework.This oblong cutout, bordered by ribbon and topped with an intricate knot of hair-like fabric, references the female anatomy. The figure's demure posture and vividly painted red lips convey a sense of femininity which is repeated in her elaborate gown. Her heart is embedded in her body, a part of her self, whereas the earth of the figure on the right seems to float, affixed to her gown but not to her body. Furthermore, the heart of the portrait on the left has been surgically dissected to reveal its inner-workings while the heart of the figure on the right is intact.The two figures are connected by an elongated artery which wraps around the European Kohl's neck, contrasting the white lace of her gown with the deep red of her own blood. The self-portrait on the right exudes a much more masculine aura than her companion; her lips are unpainted and the slightest shadow of a mustache darkens her upper lip. Additionally, her spread knees and slightly curved back suggest a more relaxed, less demure, pose. The masculine elements of the portrait on the right are complicated by the way in which the thin fabric of her blouse clings to her breasts , highlighting their outline and affirming her femaleness.She is clothed in the Tenant dress native to the Isthmus of Authentic, home to a traditionally matriarchal society known for the strength and independence of its indigenous female residents. 5 The white hem of the Tenant Kohl's dress is embroidered with a white-on-white floral pattern that mimics the vivid red flowers of the European own, symbolically connecting the two figures and reminding the viewer that the blood dripping on the white gown comes from the bodies of both figures due to their shared circulatory system. While the vascular system of the figure on the left is completely exposed and travels across the surface of her gown, the main artery of the figure on the right disappears under the shoulder of her blouse, reappearing as it wraps around her arm. The Tenant Kohl is penetrated by the artery leading from her heart to the medallion held in her right hand. This artery culminates in an image of Riviera as a child wh ich Kohl delicately holds near her womb. Alternatively, the cylindrical shape of the medallion and the positioning of Kohl's hand suggests a vulgar masculine gesture, reiterating the androgynous nature of the Tenant Kohl.In spite of their many differences, the two Kohl's are inextricably linked, not only due to their role as multiple facets of the artist's identity but by their interlocking hands, the continuity of the hems of their gowns, and their shared circulatory system. This symbiotic relationship reiterates the unity of these two figures, not as conflicting elements of Kohl's identity, but as the visual expression of al facets of one complex whole. Lass Dos Fridays serves as a depiction of the multiple facets of Kohl's identity which span centuries of Mexican history.Kohl's use of elements drawn from throughout Mexican history forges a sense of unity that encompasses Mexico pre-Columbian, Colonial, and Revolutionary past. Thus, rather than dichotomies, Lass Dos Fridays embodi es the unity of seemingly incompatible parts which express Kohl's conceptualization of Mexico and her personal identity as it related to the history of her country. Because Kohl's father was German and her mother was Indian, Lass Dos Fridays can e interpreted as a visualization of her mixed European/Mexican heritage. The concept of the Colonial is of particular importance.As a product of the European colonization of Mexico, Kohl literally embodies both the colonizer and the colonized. In Lass Dos Fridays, Kohl uses a lacy, white and characteristically European or American gown to represent outside influence in Mexico. In addition to her mixed heritage, Kohl quite literally utilized her self-portraiture, especially manipulations of costume, to transform herself into a representation of Mexican history and identity. Kohl's manipulation of Mexican tradition to comment on contemporary politics is exemplified by her appropriation of La Lorena in Henry Ford Hospital, 1932 (fig.AY). In thi s self-portrait, Kohl depicts the aftermath of the abortion of her most recent pregnancy. The popular perception of Kohl's views on motherhood assert that, ?she lived as well with a yearning for a child she could never have?her smashed pelvis led only to miscarriages and at least three therapeutic abortions. 126 This traditional view does not account for the fact that Kohl herself requested an abortion and voluntarily ingested castor oil in the hope of ending her 1932 pregnancy. Henry Ford Hospital is a self portrait of a crying Kohl, laying naked and disheveled on a hospital bed following her 1932 abortion at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. Her bed rests at a precarious angle, situated in a vast expanse of barren land, possibly a reference to the loneliness a Mexican woman felt who rejected deeply embedded cultural norms about womanhood and motherhood. 30 In the background, Kohl added a skyline reminiscent of the River Rouge Plant in Detroit, calling to mind the role of the fem ale body as a site dedicated to the production of children. Placing herself against a stark white sheet soaked in her own blood, Kohl included prominent tears rolling down her face. These tears are the most straightforward link between Kohl and La Lorena. ! In depicting herself as La Lorena, Kohl utilized the power of folklore to address social issues far beyond the scope of her personal angst. She appropriated a cultural symbol as a direct commentary on societal norms and their restrictive nature regarding women and their ability to control reproduction.In Henry Ford Hospital, Kohl explicitly challenges the dichotomy of the virgin and the here that categorizes women as either good or bad mothers. 32 This dichotomy leaves little freedom for women to exist between these two extremes and is clearly tailored to the preservation of male power. Kohl does present herself in a vulnerable state, but her brazen depiction of her disregard cultural norms which equated womanhood to motherhood r eferences the powerful Micronesian goddesses rather than the violated Lorena.In depicting herself as La Lorena, Kohl lays the groundwork for Chicane artists to redefine the role of women in these cultures without abandoning their three mother figures, La Lorena, La Virgin De Guadalupe, and La Mainline. Henry Ford Hospital challenged cultural norms concerning womanhood and allowed Kohl to publicly address issues she was otherwise unwilling to discuss. Through her art, Friday lived this different reality, announcing that giving birth to the other within us is where Ã¢â¬Ëwho we are' begins. 4 Self-proclaimed as the one who gave birth to herself' (Feints, 1995, plate 49), Friday Kohl painted her own reality; reclaiming it, reflecting it and repeatedly re-living it. A performer of gender roles, unabashedly excessive in femininity as well as masculinity, and an intimate lover of both women and men, she painted narratives ND wrote images that exploit the creative tensions concealed and c ompelled by oppositional rationale. Boldly confronting the thorny imperative of subjectivity, she embraced her heterogeneous marginality as a valuable political standpoint as well as an innovative personal imperative.Her works re-activate identities as assemblages of dynamic and incomplete parts operating in the various cultural contexts that partially produce and are produced by the subjects who inhabit and perform them. Perhaps most compellingly of all, though, her arresting gaze fixes the viewer, unsettling the assumed division between the bile viewing subject and its inert viewed object, and returning the viewer's scrutiny towards a consideration of how, and with what effects, identity and marginality are normatively dealt with and reconciled.Hybrid of race, sex, gender and sexuality coalesce in Friday's work to disrupt cogently the paradigm of sameness versus difference that has historically elided dissident identities. Her paintings, which negotiate the intricate tensions betw een identity and marginality, situate her Ã¢â¬Ëin between'. A curious artist and committed idealist, she painted magic with a realist brush, and in so doing dealt with difference differently. Frida Kahlo While scrolling through a list of Friday Kohl's artwork, I stumbled upon her painting titled Henry Ford Hospital. The thumbnail alone Jumped off of the screen and caught my eye. I was immediately pulled in by the beauty of the female figure lying nude on a hospital bed. Upon further inspection of the image, it became quite clear which aspects of this piece I gravitated towards and why. The image is a painful self-portrait surrounding the experience of Friday's second miscarriage.While I can not relate to the tragedy of losing a wanted fetus, I can strongly relate to the grief experienced during and after the expulsion of one's womb. In this piece, Friday has painted herself on a hospital bed with a pool of blood surrounding her and a somewhat contorted body. Her legs and pelvis are twisted away from the viewer, suggesting her discomfort or perhaps even shame. She has her hands cradling her still bloated belly with what appear to be six different umbilical cords leading to different s ymbolic objects.Attached to the umbilical cords are the fetus, a snail, a dying orchid, a medical machine, a human pelvis, and the sidewise of diagram depicting the female anatomy. The fetus is that of her would-be sons Disguise, or Ã¢â¬Å"Little Diego' (her husband's name). The snail is thought to be representative of her painfully slow delivery of a dead baby. The single orchid, which is said to be a real orchid that her husband gave her, has long been viewed as a symbol of love, strength, and sexuality. The medical machine pictured, to me, seems to be a symbol of the cold and sometimes robotic process of any medical procedure.The final two items connected to Friday's abdomen, the diagram of the female body and a pelvic bone, portray an awareness of what this second miscarriage meaner hectically for her body. In the background of the image, we see the many industrial buildings of Detroit, where Friday was at the time of the miscarriage. In 1925, Friday Kohl was involved in a terri ble bus accident which left her with a broken pelvis, a broken spinal column, and various other injuries. Friday was told she would most likely never be able to have children. In 1929 she married Diego Riviera and soon she became pregnant. This original pregnancy ended in abortion.Due to her because previously broken pelvis, the fetus was positioned incorrectly which was risk to both Friday and the child. By the time her second pregnancy occurred in 1932, it was clear to Friday that Diego had not wanted children. In an attempt to abort the child, she had unsuccessfully taken quinine. Realizing her failure to terminate Friday chose to continue with the pregnancy. Three and half months pregnant, Friday was admitted to the hospital with severe hemorrhaging and eventually suffered a miscarriage. This painting was created very soon after a traumatic event that made her realize that she could never carry a pregnancy to term. Frida Kahlo The documentary talked about the Mexican painter Friday Kohl who was best known for her unique series of self-portraits. I knew about her artwork and was quite amazed by her way of portraying self-portraits in an extraordinary expression before I watched this documentary. After watching the video, I understand more about the reasons why her painting was done this way. Her artworks brought the pieces of her life stories to the audience. Her marriage with Diego Riviera contributes the later works of her. It was the main influence of her life.If she did not meet Diego Riviera, e would probably see a total Friday Kohl. The complicated relationship from inability of reproduction, Dies unfaithfulness, Kohl's affairs, divorce to remarriage created the Kohl who was physically and emotionally torn. She expressed her life problems in her paintings, her tragic and exotic figures brand her personal art career. However the important event in her life was the undergo of the miscarriage and abortio n. It portrayed the painful personal of Kohl that reflected in the emotional disorder of her artwork.Kohl wanted a child very much, her nightmares ND thoughts about fertility was shown. The fertility dream is the part which I like most about the documentary. It portrays a woman's struggle and pain for losing the ability to have a baby, the heart wrenching when you wish for a child of you and your loves one but you have lost the reproductive system ability. The artwork Henry Ford Hospital (The Flying Bed) provokes the emotions in us. I would also think that this painting attract the attention the issue on fertility, at the same time encourage the public to take care of their reproductive health.It would make a different influence to Kohl's career if she was not living in Mexico. In her paintings, a strong indigenous Mexican culture was shown in the use of intense color and primitive style. She also wore traditional indigenous clothing of Mexico as shown in her paintings. If she was l iving in Europe or America, the colors she used and costumes will most probably reflect the scene of the country instead. The humming birds and monkey painted are animals in Mexican mythology. The folk cultural content will disappear and she will robbery express her self-portrait in another way.I am surprised by the Mexicans attitude to death in the documentary. The way they took death in a celebration manner shocked me. She even painted a dead child and put in on top of her bed. Collection of skeleton in her house showed her close association with death, either death of children or the death itself. I do not agree with Andre Bretons description of Kohl's work as surrealist. Friday Kohl painted her own stories, she did not paint dreams. The dream-like fantasy atmosphere she painted is a metaphor to her own life.Her pain and Joy were represented by elements that are irrational and imaginary. They were all what she had been through, but not dream. In my point of view, Friday Kohl was an amazing independent artist. In response to her tragic life, she painted. She triumphed over her life problems by her own strength and self- determination. Painting the reality helped in expressing her pain and tears, a way of releasing perhaps helped in easing her suffering process. She revealed her life in art and this has helped to address the issues to the public that serves as a reminder and encouragement.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
In the United States 85% of people suffer from low self-esteem. This means that many of us are consumed by fear of failure, fail more often than not, tend to procrastinate, feel unfulfilled, frustrated, angry, unloved, unlovable, nervous or shy, are indecisive, suffer from many other uncomfortable feelings that prevent us from our realizing full potential. In order to cure this illness, we must first know the cause and where it originated. The identification of self-esteem as a part of psychology thought to have its origins from the philosopher and psychologist, William James. The observation about self and storage of those observations by the Ã¢â¬Å"I-selfÃ¢â¬ create three types of knowledge, which count for the Ã¢â¬Å"Me-selfÃ¢â¬ , according to James.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the mid-20th century, the rise of phenomenology and humanistic psychology led to renewed interest in self-esteem. Self-esteem then took a central role in personal self-actualization and in the treatment of psychic disorders. Psychologists started to consider the relationship between psychotherapy and the personal satisfaction of a person with high self-esteem as useful to the field. This led to new elements being introduced to the concept of self-esteem, including the reasons why people tend to feel less worthy and why people become discouraged or unable to meet challenges by themselves. Currently, the core self-evaluations approach includes self-esteem as one of four dimensions that comprise one s fundamental appraisal of oneself, along with locus of control, neuroticism, and self-efficacy. The concept of core self-evaluations as first examined by Judge, Locke, and Durham (1997), has since proven to have the ability to predict several work outcomes, specifically, job satisfaction and job performance. Self-esteem may, in fact, be one of the most essential core self-evaluation dimensions because it is the overall value one feels about oneself as a person. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself, (for example, I am competent, I am worthy), as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame. Stated by John P. Hewitt in Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Smith and Mackie a social psychologist defined it by sayingShow MoreRelatedNotes On Social Identity Theory1191 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesal., 2015) and its implications on ingroup inclusion, intergroup behavior, and self-esteem (Brewer Yuki, 2007). This theory is further discussed here, particularly its conception of group identification and esteem, to give context to BIRG and the framework of analysis that will be used to analyze the phenomenon. SIT assumes that individuals pursue group memberships (i.e. social identities) to attain a positive self-concept by affiliating with groups of high status (Gudykunst Bond, 1980). As suchRead MoreRobert Cialdini And His Colleagues Essay1749 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespsychological phenomenon called basking in reflected glory (BIRG), recognizing how individuals tend to increase their identification with a person or groupÃ¢â¬âwith whom they share a preexisting ingroup identityÃ¢â¬âwhen the latter has succeeded in an endeavor that brings group pride. Social identity theory is typically invoked to explain how the phenomenon is manifested through ingroup affiliation and self-enhancement. Though BIRG as a phenomenon has been found to be replicable across cultures, its determinants andRead MoreRacism : Racism And Racism996 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesallowing for more conclusive identification of the circumstances that lead to discrimination. The paradigm shows that the moment a distinction is m ade between members of two different groups it creates a great divide between the groups. Furthermore, the individual members begins to search for further similarities within their own group and differences in the Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ group. Secondly, Social Identification Theory shows that the way in which an individual views themselves, their self-concept, is derived fromRead MoreThe Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria Essay1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGalang et al. (2015) used the brief implicit association test (BIAT) to examine how the salience of and identification with a cultural prime are manifested through assimilative priming (i.e. BIRG), or a dissociation from the prime (i.e. contrastive priming).3 In this study, Manny Pacquiao (the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s renowned boxer) served as the cultural prime (i.e. the succeeding other), while national identification (as a Filipino, the nationality of the Philippines) as the ingroup which fans may share with the boxerRead MoreCorrelation Betwe en Self Esteem And Healthy Individuals996 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrelationships have not yet begun to explore the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem. As has already been discussed, the research relating to CNM relationships has provided a plethora of information supporting healthy relationships and healthy individuals. The next step is to explore the self-esteem of these CNM individuals. Therefore, the purpose of this research proposal is to explore correlations between self-esteem scores on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1989) with relationship choice, includingRead MoreSocial Psychology, The Social Identity1492 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesindividual identifies, including kin, peers, profession, nation, and cultural identity (Galang, QuiÃ ±ones, Adriano, Portillo, Carvajal, 2015). The ingroup identification afforded by social identities then allows individuals to distinguish between people belonging to and excluded from the ingroup (Brewer Yuki, 2007), and to bolster oneÃ¢ â¬â¢s self-concept through affiliation with high-status groups and individuals (Gudykunst Bond, 1980). 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Identification is important because it allows a person to have a stance or a starting place with which to view the world and with which to be viewed; it allows such a person a degree of completion and a self-regard with which to base all of his or her impressions upon. Education, of course, plays a highly integral role in the ultimate forming of someones identity, which a casual examinationRead MoreAssignment On Social Identity Theory Essay1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe groups (e.g. social class, family, company etc.) which people belonged to were an important source of pride and self-esteem. Groups give us a sense of social identity: a sense of belonging to the social world. In order to increase our self-image we enhance the status of the group to which we belong. For example, TISS is a top ranked university in India. We can also increase our self-image by discriminating and holding prejudice views against the out group (the group we donÃ¢â¬â¢t belong to). For exampleRead MoreIdentity Theory And Social Identity1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat social identity means who we are and who the others are and on the other hand what the other thinks about themselves and others. Further, Mead elaborates that a person in a particular society has two identities and which are self-identity and social identity. The self-identity is the cognition that a person has about him or herself and the social identity is the reflection of the accepted values that a person has in the society. Social Identity theory is enabling a person to answer his question