Monday, March 23, 2020

Philosophy Of Mind Essays - Philosophy Of Artificial Intelligence

Philosophy Of Mind In this paper I plan to show that Searle is correct in claiming that his Chinese Room Analogy shows that any Turing machine simulation of human understanding of a linguistic phenomenon fails to possess any real understanding. First I will explain the Chinese Room Analogy and how it is compared to a Turing machine. I will then show that the machine can not literally be said to understand. A Turing machine has a infinite number of internal states, but always begins a computation in the initial state go. Turing machines can be generalized in various ways. For example many machines can be connected, or a single machines may have more than one reader-printer under command of the control. The machines are set to accept input and give output based on the type of input given. When comparing the Turing machine simulation of understanding to actual human understanding you ca see the story given as input, and the answers to questions about the story as output. In the Chinese Room Analogy Searle supposed that he was locked in a room with a large batch of Chinese writing referred to as "scripts". By using the term "script" it is meant to say that this first batch of Chinese writing is the original or principal instrument or document. Further more in this case he is said not to know any Chinese, either written or spoken. The Chinese writing is described by Searle as " meaningless squiggles". Next he is presented with a second batch of Chinese writing referred to as a "story". The term story here is meant to describe the second batch to be an account of incidents or events that will be used to make a statement regarding the facts pertinent to the incidents or events that will follow. Accompanied with the second batch of writing is a set of written rules written in English that is meant to be used for correlating the two batches called a "program". The "program" given to Searle is meant to used as a printed outline of a particular order to be followed to correlate the Chinese symbols. The rules, or the "program", will allow Searle to correlate the symbols entirely by their shape. Finally a third batch of Chinese symbols is presented along with further instructions in English, referred to as "questions". The "questions" are implemented as a way to interrogate Searle in such a manner that his competence in the situation will be given. These "questions" allow the third batch to be correlated with the first two batches. It is supposed in this analogy that after a while he becomes so good at following the instructions to manipulate the symbols, while giving the correct answers, that is becomes impossible for a man from outside the direct point of view to distinguish his answers from that of a native Chinese speaker. The Chinese Room Analogy goes a step further when he is given large batches of English, called "stories", which he of course understands as native English speaker. The story in this case is to be used just as it was in the previous case, to describe the batch as an account of incidents or events that will be used to make a statement regarding the facts pertinent to the incidents or events that will follow. Much like the case with the Chinese writing questions are asked in English and he is able to answer them, also in English. These answers are indistinguishable from that of other native English speakers, if for no other reason that he is a native speaker himself. The difference here is that in the Chinese case, Searle is only producing answers based on manipulation of the symbols of which have no meaning to him, and in the English case answers are given based on understanding. It is supposed that in the Chinese case, Searle behaves as nothing more than a computer, performing operations on formally specified elements. An advocate of the strong AI (Artificial Intelligence) claim that if a question and answer sequence much like the case with the Chinese symbols, a machine is not only simulating human ability but also that the machine can be said to literally understand a story and provide answers to questions about them. Searle declares that in regard to the first claim where machine can literally be said to understand a story and provide answers, that this is untrue. Obviously in the Chinese Room Analogy even though the inputs and outputs are indistinguishable from that of native Chinese speaker Searle

Friday, March 6, 2020

Pell Grant Eligibility and Requirements Do You Qualify

Pell Grant Eligibility and Requirements Do You Qualify SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Pell Grants are awarded by the federal US government to help students pay for college or vocational school.Figuring out whether you're eligible can be confusing, but this post will guide you through all the eligibility requirements you should knowabout if you want to apply for a federal Pell Grant. If you need a basic intro to what the Pell Grant is, check out our overview guide. Students are automatically considered for the Pell Grant when they submit their Free Application for Federal Student Aid, or FAFSA. You can learn more about submission here. In this post, we'll cover the following: How to figure out whether you're eligiblefor federal student aid What the Pell Grant income limits are How to figure out whether you're eligible for the Pell Grant specifically Pell Grant award maximums What you can do to increase your chances of getting the Pell Grant What Are the Federal Student Aid Requirements? Because the Pell Grant is a federal aid program, you need to meet basic eligibility for federal student aid in order to be considered for the Pell.There are a lot of complicated-seeming requirements, so we put together two lists that describeeverything you need before applying for aid. You need to check off every item on List #1 and one item on List #2. List #1 In order to be eligible for all federal aid, including the Pell Grant, you must meet all the following eligibility criteria: Eligibility Requirement Do you meet this criterion? Have a high school diploma, GED, or approved homeschool education Be enrolled or accepted to enroll in an eligible degree/certificate program You can check with your school/program’s financial aid office if you want to confirm eligibility Be registered with Selective Service,if you are male and 18-25 years old If applicable,register on the SS website Have a valid Social Security Number (unless you’re from the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, or Republic of Palau) Sign statements on the FAFSA stating that (1) you’re not in default and do not owe refund money on a federal student loan, and (2) you’ll only use federal aid money to help pay for your education Access the FAFSA Maintain "satisfactory" progress in school If you’re concerned about your academic performance or have questions about what is considered "satisfactory," set up a meeting with your dean or other school administrator List #2 In addition to the items listed above, you must be able to check ONEof the following: Be a US citizen or US national Have a green card Have an Arrival-Departure Record (I-94) Have battered immigrant status Have a T-Visa These are all the requirements necessary to apply for federal financial aid.If you didn't have any issues with the items listed above, you're on the right track! Want to build the best possible college application and financial aid package? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in. Making sure you meet these requirements is a hassle, but it's worth it for free money, right? What Are the Pell Grant Requirements? There are a few eligibility requirements specific to the Pell Grant that you need to meet on top of the federal requirements we just discussed. Let's start by answering an important question: what are the Pell Grant income limits? The Pell Grant is meant primarily for low-income students who have not already received a post-secondary degree.There are some exceptions to this, but they're rare. For the purpose of this post, I'll be focusing onfuture and current college students. In a nutshell, to be considered eligible for the Pell Grant, you: Mustdemonstrate enough financial need (we'll get to the details of this shortly) Cannot already have a bachelor's or professional degree Easy enough, right? In the next section, I'll explain exactly what I mean when I say you need to demonstrate "enough financial need." What Are the Financial Need Requirements? This seems like a simple question, but the answer is actually somewhat complicated. Before I can answer this question, I need to briefly explain what financial information is considered important, and why. The Department of Education- the government department in charge of federal financial aid- takes a lot of factors into consideration when determiningwhether to award the Pell Grant. Put simply, the greater your family's financial need is, the greater the likelihood that you'll be awarded the grant. There's more to determining financial need than just looking at how much your parents make, however; your family's expenses are alsotaken into account. Lower income + more expenses = greater need. Allow me tobreak down what counts as income and what counts as an expense: Income: Your own personal income (if any) Your parents' income Assets belonging to you or your parents (e.g., savings or things they could own, such as a house) Expense: Number of people living in your household (more people = more expense) Number of family members (not including parents) who are attending college Your school's Cost of Attendance, or CoA- that is,how much you have to pay in tuition, room, board, and other expenses for one year Now that we've gotten through that information, I can better explain how your family's unique financial situation is analyzed when you're considered for a Pell Grant. All the above factors- income and expenses- are used to calculate yet another number called an Expected Family Contribution (EFC). If your EFC is at or below $5,140 for the 2019-20 academic year, you will be eligible to receive the Pell Grant. Each family's financial situation is different, and there's no one income cutoff that makes a student eligible or ineligible to receive the Pell. With that being said, here are some important facts to note: Most Pell Grants are awarded to students whose families make less than $30,000 annually Some Pell Grants are awarded to students whose families make $30,000-$60,000 annually It's possible but rare for students to be awarded the grant if their families make more than $60,000 annually What Are the Requirements After You Get Your Pell Grant? Do You Ever Need to Repay Pell Grants? After you have met the requirements for both FAFSA and the Pell Grant, and have been awarded your Pell Grant, it's pretty easy to remain eligible for the grant. All you need to do is stay in school. However, if you drop out of school while you're receiving a Pell Grant or change from full-time student status to part-time student status, you might be required to repay all or part of your Pell Grant for that year or semester. If your school determines that you need to repay your Pell Grant, they'll send you a notice informing you of how much you owe and when you'll need to pay it by. You'll typically have 45 days to either pay the amount in full or set up a payment plan. You might have to focus a little more than you'd like on the family finances. How Much Money Can You Get From a Pell Grant? For 2019-2020, the maximum Pell Grant award is $6,195.Factors such as the amount of your Expected Family Contribution and enrollment status (full-time vs part-time) will affect how much money you can get. You can learn more about calculating your EFC with our Pell Grant Calculatorguide. What If You Don't Qualify for a Pell Grant? If you're above the Pell Grant income limits, there's not much you can do to change your family's financial situation, which is the maincriterionused when you apply for a Pell Grant. There are certain factors under your control that might affect your eligibility. Here are some potential eligibility issues and solutions: If you don't have a high school diploma but would like to attend college, you can get a GED to meet federal financial aid requirements. Make sure you apply to and enroll in colleges or vocational programs that participate in the Pell Grant program. If you're unsure whether a school is involved in the program, you can check with that school's financial aid office. If you're not eligible for financial aid because you're in default on a federal student loan, focus on paying back that debt before applying for more federal aid. Summary: How Pell Grant Eligibility Works The Pell Grant is anannual award given out by the federal government to students who need help paying for college.If you apply for FAFSA, you'll be automatically considered for a Pell Grant. To meet the Pell Grant requirements, you'll need to meet all the federal eligibility requirements for financial aid and provethat your expected family contribution is at or below $5,140 for the 2019-2020 school year. Currently, the maximum Pell Grant award is $6,195. Once you receivea Pell Grant, you don't need to pay it back, unless you drop out of school or change from full-time to part-time student status, in which case you'll need to repay all or part of your Pell Grant. What's Next? If you're already looking at how to get a Pell Grant, you might already know about the program. If not, you can read about everything you need to know in our in-depthPell Grant guide. Are you still putting together your college applications? You might want to learn more about application strategy and versatility. For more information on getting into your top-choice schools, check out our step-by-step guide. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: